Ana səhifə

VuZGvni Zvirfasi mamis aleqsandre (rezo) ezugbaias naTel xsovnas


Yüklə 3.2 Mb.
səhifə1/19
tarix13.05.2016
ölçüsü3.2 Mb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   19



vuZGvni Zvirfasi mamis

aleqsandre (rezo) ezugbaias

naTel xsovnas

wi­na­sitKva­o­ba


wi­nam­de­ba­re na­Sro­mi Cve­ni sa­mec­ni­e­ro sa­qmi­a­no­bis er­Ti mi­mar­Tu­le­bis Se­ma­Ja­me­be­li Sro­maa. mas­Si warmo­dge­ni­lia me­grul-la­zu­ris mo­rfo­lo­gi­u­ri, mo­rfo­no­lo­gi­u­ri, mo­rfo­sin­taq­su­ri da se­man­ti­ku­ri sis­te­me­bis kvle­va ori Zi­ri­Ta­di gra­ma­ti­ku­li ka­te­go­ri­is mi­xed­viT: er­Ti mxriv, esaa gra­ma­ti­ku­li ri­cxvis ka­te­go­ria, ro­me­lic sa­zi­a­roa sa­xe­le­bi­sa da zmni­sa­Tvis, ri­Tac is uni­ver­sa­lur ka­te­go­ri­ad gvev­li­ne­ba da warmo­a­Cens enob­riv sis­te­meb­Si mi­mdi­na­re Tan­mxvedr pro­ce­sebs; me­o­re mxriv, ga­a­na­li­ze­bu­lia pi­ris ka­te­go­ria, ro­gorc mo­rfo­no­lo­gi­ur, ase­ve fun­qci­o­na­lur do­ne­ze. me­sa­me sa­ki­Txi, rac ara mxo­lod me­grul-la­zu­ris, ara­med ibe­ri­ul-kav­ka­si­u­ri ene­bis gan­mas­xva­ve­be­li ma­xa­si­a­Te­be­lia, er­ga­ti­u­li kon­struq­ci­is prob­le­ma­ti­kaa, rom­lis kvle­vam araer­Ti sa­in­te­re­so ten­den­cia gamo­av­li­na.

am wig­nis I na­wi­li _ gra­ma­ti­ku­li ri­cxvis gamo­xat­vis sis­te­ma _ Cve­ni sa­di­ser­ta­cio Sro­ma (1999w.) ga­xldaT, Tum­ca am­Je­rad is gada­mu­Sa­ve­bu­li sa­xi­Taa warmo­dge­ni­li, ker­Zod, ga­va­a­na­li­zeT ri­cxvis ka­te­go­ria, ro­gorc metKve­le­bis na­wil­Ta tran­sla­ci­is sa­Su­a­le­ba mo­rfo­sin­taq­sis do­ne­ze; pi­ris na­cval­sa­xel­Ta di­qo­to­mi­is Te­o­ri­u­li ga­az­re­ba isev emKare­ba e. ben­ve­nis­tis zo­gad de­bu­le­bas, mag­ram profesor T. uTur­ga­i­Zi­se­u­li in­ter­pre­ta­ci­iT.

ase­ve ga­Tva­lis­wi­ne­bu­lia Cve­ni sadisertacio na­Sro­mis re­cen­zen­tis _ mi­xe­il qur­di­a­nis Tval­saz­ri­si mrav­lo­biT ri­cxv­Si in­klu­zi­u­ri da eq­sklu­zi­u­ri pi­ris na­cval­sa­xe­le­bis se­man­ti­kur kva­li­fi­ka­ci­as­Tan da­kav­Si­re­biT.

se­ri­o­zu­lad gada­mu­Sav­da sin­taq­su­ri na­wi­li. pre­di­ka­tul Se­sitKve­ba­Si ri­cxv­Si Se­Tan­xme­bis sa­ki­Txi gan­xi­lu­lia mo­rfo­sin­taq­sur do­ne­ze cal­mxri­vi da or­mxri­vi mar­ki­re­bis im mi­dgo­miT, ro­me­lic warmo­ad­gi­na prof. T. uTur­ga­i­Zem Ta­vis bo­lod­ro­in­del na­Sro­meb­Si. Cven vi­zi­a­rebT de­bu­le­bas, rom ri­cxv­Si Se­Tan­xme­ba se­man­ti­kis do­ne­ze ma­Si­nac gvaqvs, ro­ca pre­di­ka­tuli Se­sitKve­bis erT-er­Ti wev­ri (sa­xe­li an zmna) mrav­lo­bi­Tis niS­ni­Taa mar­ki­re­bu­li: ko­Ce­fi mo­urs `ka­ce­bi mo­dis~ _ wi­na­da­de­ba­Si mTqme­lis­Tvis `si­a­ru­lis~ pro­ce­si av­to­ma­tu­rad da­kav­Si­re­bu­lia erT­ze me­ti su­bi­eq­tis mo­qme­de­bas­Tan, ise­ve, ro­gorc Se­sitKve­ba­Si `jir­xol­oq qˆmorTes~. ri­cxvis ka­te­go­ri­is uni­ver­sa­lu­ro­ba ama­Sic Cans: is lo­gi­kur-se­man­ti­ku­ri ka­te­go­ria, rom­lis for­ma­li­za­cia niS­navs er­Tmxri­vi mar­ki­re­bi­dan or­mxriv mar­ki­re­ba­ze gada­svlas. vfiq­robT, am mi­mar­Tu­le­biT sa­in­te­re­so vi­Ta­re­bas aC­ve­nebs me­grul-la­zu­ri.

wig­nis II da III na­wi­le­bi asa­xavs bo­lo wle­bis kvle­vas, rac iT­va­lis­wi­nebs pi­ris ka­te­go­ri­is sis­te­mur ana­lizs me­grul-la­zur­Si. er­Ti mxriv, vca­deT da­gve­zus­te­bi­na pi­ris ka­te­go­ri­is aGmniS­vnel alo­morf­Ta dis­tri­bu­cia me­grul­Si, me­o­re mxriv, aGve­we­ra pi­ris alo­morf­Ta sis­te­ma la­zur­Si sa­er­To su­ra­Tis Seq­mnis miz­niT. gan­sa­kuT­re­bu­li KuradGeba da­eT­mo pi­ris ni­San­Ta fun­qci­ur ana­lizs su­bi­eqt-obi­eq­tis kom­bi­na­ci­e­bis mi­xed­viT or­pi­ri­an da sa­mpi­ri­an zmna­Si.

pi­ris da ri­cxvis gra­ma­ti­kul ka­te­go­ri­as uSu­a­lod ukav­Sir­de­ba er­ga­ti­u­li kon­struq­ci­is sa­ki­Txi, ram­de­na­dac er­ga­ti­u­lo­ba me­grul-la­zur­Si for­ma­li­ze­bu­lia ro­gorc aq­tan­tis, ase­ve zmna-Se­mas­men­lis do­ne­ze.

kvle­vis Se­de­geb­ma warmo­a­Ci­na me­grul-la­zu­ris mo­rfo­no­lo­gi­u­ri, mo­rfo­sin­taq­su­ri da se­man­ti­ku­ri sis­te­me­bis sa­er­To ma­xa­si­a­Teb­le­bi, ase­ve gan­sxva­ve­bu­li ten­den­ci­e­bic, rac ga­pi­ro­be­bu­lia ara mxo­lod ur­Ti­er­Ti­zo­la­ci­iT, ara­med Si­na­ga­ni ima­nen­tu­ri ka­non­zo­mi­e­re­bi­Tac.

vfiq­robT, wi­nam­de­ba­re na­Sro­mi xels Se­uwKobs ro­gorc za­nu­ris gra­ma­ti­ku­li sis­te­mis Se­mdgom kvle­va-Zi­e­bas, ase­ve qar­Tve­lu­ri ene­bis Se­da­re­bi­Ti gra­ma­ti­kis fun­da­men­tu­ri sa­ki­Txe­bis da­mu­Sa­ve­bas.

wignis struqtura emKareba qronologiur princips, kerZod, kvleva daviwKeT saxelebsa da zmnaSi ricxvis kategoriis SeswavliT, Sesabamisad, mas daemKara aqtanturi kategoriebis morfonologiuri, morfosintaqsuri da semantikuri analizi, amitomac mizanSewonilad miviCnieT wignis dawKeba ricxvis kategoriiT.

da­sas­rul, ar Se­iZ­le­ba mad­li­e­re­biT ar mo­vix­se­nio Ce­mi pir­ve­li sa­mec­ni­e­ro xelmZGva­ne­li, pro­fe­so­ri kor­ne­li da­ne­lia, romelmac damavala ri­cxvis ka­te­go­ri­is Se­swav­la me­grul­Si. uni­ver­si­tet­Si sa­dip­lo­mo na­Srom­ze mu­Sa­o­bi­sa da masTan Se­xved­re­bis pe­ri­o­di sa­u­ke­Te­so mo­go­ne­bad da­rCa Cems cxov­re­ba­Si. kor­ne­li da­ne­li­as rCe­viT, sa­di­ser­ta­cio na­Sro­mis Te­ma­dac ri­cxvis ka­te­go­ria Se­ir­Ca, am­Je­rad me­grul-la­zur­Si.

gan­sa­kuT­re­bu­li mad­lo­ba mi­nda gada­vu­xa­do sa­qar­Tve­los me­cni­e­re­ba­Ta erov­nu­li aka­de­mi­is wevr-ko­res­po­dents, ba­ton va­ja Se­nge­li­as, rom­lis xelmZGva­ne­lo­biT da­vas­ru­le sa­di­ser­ta­cio na­Sro­mi. rac mTa­va­ria, Kovel­Tvis vgrZnob­di mis mxar­da­ye­ras sa­mec­ni­e­ro ka­ri­e­ris gza­ze.

mi­nda mad­lo­ba vuTxra arn. Ci­qo­ba­vas sa­xe­lo­bis enaT­mec­ni­e­re­bis in­sti­tu­tis sa­mec­ni­e­ro ko­leq­tivs Ta­nad­go­mi­sa­Tvis; ase­ve, wi­nam­de­ba­re wig­nis teq­ni­kur re­daq­tors ru­su­dan pa­pi­aS­vils, in­gli­su­ri ver­si­is mTar­gmnel-re­daq­tors ma­na­na ru­si­eS­vils, wig­nis Kdis di­za­i­ners qe­Ti ro­ga­vas ga­we­u­li sa­msa­xu­ri­sa­Tvis.


nawili I
ricxvis kategoriis gamoxatvis
sistema

Sesavali
ri­cxvis gra­ma­ti­ku­li ka­te­go­ria Ta­vi­si uni­ver­sa­lu­ro­biT gamo­ir­Ce­va _ sa­xel­sac mo­e­po­ve­ba da zmna­sac. ama­ve dros, mi­si fun­qci­o­ni­re­ba, er­Ti mxriv, sa­xel­sa da, me­o­re mxriv, zmna­Si mni­S­vne­lov­nad gan­sxva­ve­bu­lia. cno­bi­li enaT­mec­ni­e­ri o. ies­per­se­ni Se­niS­navs: ri­cxvis ka­te­go­ria, er­Ti Se­xed­viT, Za­li­an mar­ti­vi Cans, mag­ram, Tu Grmad da­vak­vir­de­biT, mTe­li ri­gi lo­gi­ku­ri da lin­gvis­ti­ku­ri xa­si­a­Tis siZ­ne­le­Ta wi­na­Se aGmo­vCnde­biT [ies­per­se­ni 1958, 216].

lo­gi­ku­ri Tval­saz­ri­siT, ri­cxvis ka­te­go­ria gu­lis­xmobs se­man­ti­kur opo­zi­ci­as: er­Ti ~ erT­ze me­ti. es uka­nas­kne­li Se­iZ­le­ba iKos ori, sa­mi, oTxi da a. S. garda ami­sa, ar­se­bobs Jgu­fi e. w. uT­vla­di sa­gne­bi­sa, sa­dac ri­cxvis ga­ge­ba gan­sxva­ve­bu­lia Tvlad sa­gneb­Si ri­cxvis ga­ge­bi­sa­gan.

gra­ma­ti­ku­li Tval­saz­ri­siT, ri­cxvis ka­te­go­ria gu­lis­xmobs se­man­ti­kur opo­zi­ci­as mxo­lo­o­bi­Ti ~ mrav­lo­bi­Ti, rac ena­Ta um­rav­le­so­bis­Tvi­saa da­ma­xa­si­a­Te­be­li. zo­gi­erT ena­Si gvaqvs oro­bi­Ti da sa­mo­bi­Ti ri­cxvic.

ze­moT­qmu­li­dan gamo­mdi­na­re, o. ies­per­se­ni gamo­Kofs ri­cxvis warmo­e­bis or sis­te­mas: lo­gi­kur­sa (Se­mec­ne­biTs) da gra­ma­ti­kuls (sin­taq­surs) [ies­per­se­ni 1958, 216]. maT So­ris mi­mar­Te­ba ase­Tia:







logik. kat.

sintaq. kat.

A.

Tvladi

erTi ........................................


mxoloobiTi






ori ........................................

sami .......................................

... erTze meti .................

...


...

...



orobiTi

samobiTi


mravlobiTi


B.

uTvladi............................

mxoloobiTi

spe­ci­a­lur li­te­ra­tu­ra­Si ri­cxvis ka­te­go­ria mi­Cne­u­lia enob­ri­vi az­rov­ne­bis obi­eqt­Ta (sa­gan­Ta) ra­o­de­nob­riv ma­xa­si­a­Teb­lad, ro­me­lic mxo­lod ar­se­biT sa­xe­leb­sa da pi­ris na­cval­sa­xe­lebs Se­iZ­le­ba hqon­des. da­nar­Cen me­tKve­le­bis na­wi­lebs ri­cxvi sin­taq­su­rad ewar­mo­e­baT [ies­per­se­ni 1958, 217; lel 1990, 583], ker­Zod, sa­xe­lis an na­cval­sa­xe­lis ri­cxvis for­mas eTan­xme­ba zmnis for­ma _ sxvag­va­rad rom vTqvaT, zmna gviC­ve­nebs mo­ce­mu­li pro­ce­sis mi­mar­Te­bas er­Ti an ram­de­ni­me su­bi­eq­ti­sa­dmi. ase­ve, zed­sar­Ta­vi sa­xe­lis for­mac Se­iZ­le­ba gamo­xa­tav­des mi­mar­Te­bas ar­se­bi­Ti sa­xe­lis ri­cxvis for­mi­sa­dmi [ax­ma­no­va 1966, 516]. or­sa­ve Se­mTxve­va­Si gvaqvs ri­cxv­Si Se­Tan­xme­ba, rac sin­taq­su­ri ka­te­go­ri­aa da ara lo­gi­ku­ri. ami­to­mac, o. ies­per­se­nis az­riT, ide­a­lur ena­Si arc adi­un­qti­vebs, arc zmnas ar eq­ne­bo­da mrav­lo­bi­Ti ri­cxvis gan­sa­kuT­re­bu­li for­ma [ies­per­se­ni 1958, 242].

zmnu­ri for­mis mrav­lo­bi­Tis ga­ge­ba or­gva­ri Se­iZ­le­ba iKos: erT Se­mTxve­va­Si is gamo­xa­tavs mo­qme­de­bis mra­val­gzi­so­bas, ram­den­Jer­me Ca­de­nil aqts, rom­lis gamo­xat­va sxva­das­xva ena­Si gan­sxva­ve­buli sa­Su­a­le­be­biT xde­ba [ies­per­se­ni 1958, 244]1; me­o­re Se­mTxve­va­Si mrav­lo­bi­To­bis ga­ge­ba sa­kuT­riv zmna­Si ki ar devs, ara­med qvem­de­ba­re-su­bi­eqt­Si, anu: `isi­ni mo­di­an~ gamo­xa­tavs ara im­de­nad `si­a­ruls~, ram­de­na­dac `mo­si­a­ru­le­ebs~. esaa gra­ma­ti­ku­li mo­vle­na, rom­lis sa­fuZ­vel­zec gamo­i­Ko­fa ri­cxvis mo­rfo­sin­taq­su­ri ka­te­go­ria.

zmnis mrav­lo­bi­Ti ri­cxvis warmo­e­ba gu­lis­xmobs: mo­qme­debs er­Ti, Tu _ erT­ze me­ti [Sa­ni­Ze 1980, 46]. Se­sa­ba­mi­sad, ri­cxvis ka­te­go­ri­is Kve­la­ze mar­ti­vi struq­tu­ra bi­na­ru­lia: ur­Ti­er­Tda­pi­ris­pi­re­bu­lia mxo­lo­o­bi­Ti da mrav­lo­bi­Ti [lel 1990, 584], mag­ram ar­se­bobs sxva sis­te­me­bic, ro­mel­Sic Ca­rTu­lia oro­bi­Ti, sa­mo­bi­Ti ri­cxvic, ma­ga­li­Tad, in­do­ev­ro­pul da se­mi­tur eneb­Si, Tum­ca aqac ga­qro­bis gza­zea. es pro­ce­si, mkvle­var­Ta az­riT, ci­vi­li­za­ci­is Se­de­gia _ ri­cxvis gamo­xat­vis sis­te­mis ga­mar­ti­ve­ba enob­ri­vi az­rov­ne­bis prog­re­sad aris mi­Cne­u­li [ies­per­se­ni 1958, 239]. ar­se­bobs gan­sxva­ve­bu­li Tval­saz­ri­sic: arn. Ci­qo­ba­vas Se­xe­du­le­biT, `sa­fuZ­vli­a­nad un­da mi­viC­ni­oT im mkvle­var­Ta az­ri, ro­mel­nic fiq­ro­ben, rom `oro­bi­Ti~ da `sa­mo­bi­Ti~ ri­cxvi garda­ma­va­li sa­fe­xu­ria er­Ti­dan mrav­li­sa­ken~ [Ci­qo­ba­va 1952, 271]. uf­ro me­tic, ger­ma­ne­li me­cni­e­ris, v. fon hum­bol­dtis az­riT, oro­bi­Ti ri­cxvi Ta­vi­si bu­ne­biT iTav­sebs mrav­lo­bi­Ti da mxo­lo­o­bi­Ti ri­cxvis ga­ge­bas. es gan­pi­ro­be­bu­lia ada­mi­a­nis msof­lxed­viT, rom­lis Ta­nax­mad sa­mKa­ro aGiq­me­ba or da­pi­ris­pi­re­bul ele­ment­Ta er­Tob­li­o­bad [humboldti 1985, 395-399].

cxadia, ricxvis logikuri, filosofiuri arsi imdenad SeiZleba gvainteresebdes, ramdenadac is gvyirdeba gramatikuli ricxvis saanalizod. Cveni mizania, sistemurad gavaanalizoT ricxvis kategoria saxelebsa da zmnaSi megrul-lazuris mixedviT.


I Ta­vi
sa­xel­Ta mrav­lo­bi­Ti ri­cxvis warmo­e­ba
$ 1. mrav­lo­bi­Tis {-ef} su­fiq­si da mi­si alo­mor­fe­bi
spe­ci­a­lur li­te­ra­tu­ra­Si aG­niS­nu­lia, rom me­grul­sa da lazur­Si sa­xel­Ta mrav­lo­bi­Tis warmo­e­ba xde­ba {-ef} su­fiq­siT, ro­me­lic er­Tvis sa­xe­lis fu­Zes da gada­hKve­ba mas Kve­la brun­va­Si [Ci­qo­ba­va 1936, 49-50]. za­nur­Si ga­ta­re­bu­lia sa­xe­lis ri­cxvis warmo­e­bis ag­lu­ti­na­ci­u­ri prin­ci­pi: Ko­ve­li brun­vis ni­Sa­ni ri­cxvis­gan da­mo­u­ki­de­bel afiqss warmo­ad­gens da ri­cxvis niS­nis Sem­deg da­er­Tvis sa­xels.

me­grul­sa da lazur­Si brun­va­Ta gan­sxva­ve­bu­li ra­o­de­no­baa. me­grul­Si gamo­Ko­fen cxra brun­vas [Kif­Si­Ze 1914, 68; Ci­qo­ba­va 1936, 43], xo­lo lazur­Si _ Svids [ma­ri 1910, 9; Ci­qo­ba­va 1936, 43]. qar­Tu­li­sa­gan gan­sxva­ve­biT, za­nurs mo­e­po­ve­ba spe­ci­fi­ku­ri brun­ve­bi _ mi­mar­Tu­le­bi­Ti da da­So­re­bi­Ti, me­grul di­a­leqts da­ma­te­biT _ da­niS­nu­le­bi­Ti (lazurs ar ga­aC­nia); qar­Tu­lis brun­va­Ta­gan lazur­Si ara gvaqvs vi­Ta­re­bi­Ti, xo­lo wo­de­bi­Tis for­ma arc me­gruls axa­si­a­Tebs da arc _ lazurs. brun­va­Ta ri­gis Se­sa­xeb spe­ci­a­lur li­te­ra­tu­ra­Si gan­sxva­ve­bu­li Tval­saz­ri­si ar­se­bobs [ma­ri 1910, 9; 29; Kif­Si­Ze 1914, 68-69; Ci­qo­ba­va 1936, 43-44; Jan­JGa­va 1999, 7], mag­ram amas am­Je­rad Cven­Tvis prin­ci­pu­li mniS­vne­lo­ba ara aqvs. mrav­lo­biT ri­cxv­Si brun­va­Ta ri­gi ase gamo­i­Ku­re­ba:






me­gru­li

lazuri

sa­x.:

koC-ef-i

koC-ef-e `ka­ce­bi~

mo­Tx.:

koC-en-q | koC-em-q | koC-ef-q

koC-ef-e-q

mi­c.:

koC-en-s | koC-em-s | koC-ef-s

koC-ef-e-s

na­T.:

koC-ef-iS(iºˆ)

koC-ef-e-S(i)

mi­mar.:

koC-ef-iSa | koC-ef-ˆSa

koC-ef-e-Sa

da­So­r.:

koC-ef-iSe | koC-ef-ˆSe

koC-ef-e-Se(n)

mo­qm.:

koC-ef-iT(i)

koC-ef-e-Te(n)

da­niS.:

koC-ef-iSo(T) | koC-ef-ˆSo(T)

_

vne­b.:

koC-ef-o

_

ro­gorc me­grul­Si, ase­ve lazur­Si {-ef} ri­cxvis ni­Sans fo­no­lo­gi­u­rad Se­pi­ro­be­bu­li alo­mor­fe­bi ga­aC­nia. me­grul­Si am­gva­ri alo­mor­fe­bia /-en/ da /-em/, rom­le­bic or brun­va­Si _ mo­Txro­biT­sa da mi­ce­miT­Si gvxvde­ba mxo­lod, da­nar­Cen brun­va­Si /-ef/ for­man­ti uc­vle­lad rCe­ba. ma­ga­li­Tad,

sa­xe­lo­bi­Ti:

ab­rag-ef-i (xub. 226,6) `ab­ra­ge­bi~, cir-ef-i (xub. 233,19) `qa­liS­vi­le­bi~, su­mar-ef-i (xub. 256,8) `stum­re­bi~, mu­ricx-ef-i (sam. 51, 39-21) `maK­re­bi~, Gvanwk-ef-i (sam. 19,13-8) `Gaw­ve­bi~...

na­Te­sa­o­bi­Ti:

am­xa­nag-ef-iS (xub. 186,19) `am­xa­na­ge­bis~, mun-ef-iS (xub. 185,11) `ma­Ti~, raS-ef-iS (xub. 178, 27) `ra­Se­bis~, nger-ef-iS(i) (sam. 75, 52-43) `mgle­bis~, frin­vel-ef-iS(i) (sam. 18, 12-28) `frin­ve­le­bis~...

mo­qme­de­bi­Ti:

xil-ef-iT (Kif. 70,8) `xi­le­biT~, Jayv-ef-iTˆ (Kif. 85,11) `Jay­ve­biT~...

vi­Ta­re­bi­Ti:

kvat-ef-o (xub. 218,31) `ix­ve­bad~, ykud-ef-o (Kif. 91,7) `yur­yle­bad~...

mrav­lo­bi­To­bis /-ef/ su­fiqs­ze mo­Txro­bi­Ti da mi­ce­mi­Ti brun­vis niS­ne­bis da­rTvi­sas warmo­iq­mne­ba fq, fs Tan­xmo­van­T­kom­pleq­se­bi, rom­le­bic `iCe­nen ten­den­ci­as ka­no­ni­kur -nq da -ns kom­pleq­se­bad garda­qmni­sa, ra­sac em­Ka­re­ba mrav­lo­bi­Tis


{-ef} mo­rfe­mis fo­no­lo­gi­u­rad mo­nac­vle [-em] da [-en] va­ri­an­te­bi~ [gu­da­va, ga­mKre­li­Ze, 1981, 212]. ro­gorc Cans, mo­Txro­biT­sa da mi­ce­miT­Si mar­Tlac xde­ba fq, fs Tan­xmo­van­Tkom­pleq­sis da­Zle­va [Jan­JGa­va 1999, 15], Tum­ca es pro­ce­si araa ab­so­lu­tu­ri xa­si­a­Ti­sa, anu /-en/, /-em/ mo­rfe­ma­Ta gver­diT /-ef/ su­fiq­sic ix­ma­re­ba. ma­ga­li­Tad:

mo­Txro­bi­Ti:




-en-:

Ten-en-q (xub. 146,3) `amaT~, ZGa­b-en-q (xub. 119,7) `go­go­eb­ma~, dem-en-q (xub. 205,32) `de­veb­ma~, CqiC­qu-en-q (t. I, 38, 68-27) `bav­Sveb­ma~, qaJ-en-q (t. I, 77, 147-17) `qa­Jeb­ma~, sin­Jal-en-qˆ (Kif. 94,22) `si­Ze­eb­ma~, ve­zir-en-qˆ (KifS. 53,35) `ve­zi­reb­ma~...

-em-:

-ef-:

in-em-qˆ (KifS. 96,25) `imaT~, pa­tin-em-q (Kif. 42,19) `ba­to­neb­ma~, me­Zo­bel-em-q (Kif. 157,2), `me­zob­leb­ma~, na­Tes-em-q (Kif. 158,1) `na­Te­sa­veb­ma~...

Ji­mal-ef-q (xub. 194,28) `Zmeb­ma~, squ­al-ef-q (xub. 238,30) `Svi­leb­ma~, Ten-ef-q (xub. 233, 37) `amaT~, boS-ef-qˆ, (KifS. 268,13) `bi­yeb­ma~, in-ef-q (KifS. 254, 24) `imaT~, mun-ef-q (sam. 75, 52-14) `Tvi­Ton~, Te­ca­lef-q (sam. 30, 20-20) `ase­Teb­ma~...



mi­ce­mi­Ti:




-en:

Gu­rel-en-s (xub. 226, 25) `mkvdrebs~, na­dir-en-c (xub. 186, 10) `na­di­rebs~, Sxur-en-s (xub. 194, 35) `cxvrebs~, za­ra­zan-en-s (xub. 206, 4) `zar­baz­nebs~, ndGal-en-c (Kif. 80, 25) `dGe­ebs~...

-em:

-ef:

ZGab-em-c (xub. 238, 31) `go­go­ebs~, Jal-em-cˆ (Kif. 82, 8) `xe­ebs~, pap-em-c (Kif. 156, 25) `mGvdlebs~, boS-em-cˆ (Kif. 84, 29) `bi­yebs~, ube­dur-em-s (Kif. 168, 27) `ube­du­rebs~, xasl-em-s (t. I, 71, 157-2) `gver­debs~...

aTen-ef-s (xub. 262, 17) `amaT~, cxen-ef-s (xub. 254,26) `cxe­nebs~, me­Sar-ef-s (Kif. 12, 11) `mgzav­rebs~, no­sal-ef-s (Kif. 42,8) `rZlebs~, Tol-ef-c (sam. 19,13-7) `Tva­lebs~, va­yar-ef-c, ber-ef-c do pap-ef-cia (sam. 74, 52-12) `vay­rebs, be­rebs da mGvdleb­so~...



i. Kif­Si­Zis teq­ste­bis mixedviT se­na­kur­Si me­tia /-en/ su­fiq­sis xved­ri­Ti wi­li Sem­de­gi pro­por­ci­iT: -ef(12): -en(47): -em(1), xo­lo zug­di­dur-sa­mur­za­Ka­nul­Si di­dia /-em/ mo­rfe­mis xved­ri­Ti wi­li: -ef(37): -en(20): -em(64). a. lom­Ta­Ze Se­niS­navs, rom `se­na­kur ki­lo­kav­Si mrav­lo­bi­Tis maC­ve­neb­lad mxo­lod e rCe­ba. es faq­ti gan­sa­kuT­re­biT aba­Sis ra­i­o­nis me­tKve­le­ba­Si ig­rZno­ba: Cqim me­zo­be­leq e ga­yi­re­bas Za­am me­mox­va­res `Ce­mi me­zob­le­bi (`me­zob­leb­ma~) am ga­yir­ve­bis dros Za­li­an da­mex­mar­nen~, ‡ur­zen Ci­teq qem­kay­ko­mes Jas `Kur­Ze­ni Ci­teb­ma Se­ya­mes xe­ze~ [lom­Ta­Ze 1987, 145]. msgavsi movlena dasturdeba lazurSic (ix. gv. 29).

mkvle­var­Ta mi­er 60-ia­ni wle­bis Se­mdgom Ca­we­ril teq­steb­Si [gu­da­va 1975; sa­mu­Sia 1990], ro­mel­Ta ume­te­so­ba zug­di­dur-sa­mur­za­Ka­nul ki­lo­kavs gane­kuT­vne­ba, Se­i­niS­ne­ba er­Ti ten­den­cia _ {-ef} mo­rfe­ma po­zi­ci­as im­Ka­rebs. k. sa­mu­Si­as mi­er gamo­qveK­ne­bul ma­sa­la­Si faqtobrivad arc gvxvde­ba -em-ia­ni an -en-ia­ni for­me­bi. Cven mi­er sa­mur­za­Ka­nos sof­leb­Si mo­po­ve­bul teq­steb­Si /-ef/ su­fiq­si­a­ni for­me­bia ga­ba­to­ne­bu­li, ma­ga­li­Tad:



Ti­nefq gi­naS­qves, ma­ra xa­Te ve­nar­Tes Ti­nefs... `imaT ga­a­ta­res, mag­ram ma­Sin­ve ver Ca­vid­nen isi­ni~; va­ya­refq qa­To­mir­Cqi­nes, ber­Zen do‡vi­li­Tia `vay­reb­ma gada­mi­bi­res _ ber­Ze­ni mo­ka­lio~; Taq mo­mp‡u­nes Cqim Ji­ma­di­efq `aq mo­miK­va­nes Cem­ma bi­Zeb­ma~; `...do mi­dar­Tes tKa­Sa Te jir­xo­lo Ji­ma­lefq `da wa­vid­nen tKis­ken es ori­ve Zme­bi~; inefs bre­li cqva­fa va­ko `imaT bev­ri qe­ba ar un­da~; Jve­So ab­ra­gefs Txi­landˆ so­felˆ `Zve­lad ab­ra­gebs so­fe­li icav­da~; ka­zak do Ka­ra­Ciq go­unwKˆ Sa­ra Te­nefs, mu­Sen­da Ti­nefs va­kodˆ Cqin ka­non... `ka­zak­ma da Ka­ra­Cael­ma ga­ux­sna maT gza, ra­tom-da maT ar mo­swon­daT (`un­do­da~) Cve­ni ka­no­ni~; odo, am­ser oko brSvi­na­Ti kun­Txu­ef­si `ho­da, ama­Gam un­da da­vus­tvi­noT ku­Txe­eb­Si~...

am­gvar ten­den­ci­as Cven qar­Tvelur enaTa fo­no­taq­ti­kis sazogado CvenebiT vxsniT. qar­Tul­Sic Cve­u­leb­ri­via fq, fs kom­pleq­se­bi _ nu­lo­va­ni da mzar­di na­pra­lov­ne­bis Tan­xmo­van­Tmim­dev­ro­be­bi [uTur­ga­i­Ze 1976, 98-105]. Cve­ni az­riT, am sa­u­ku­nis da­sa­wKis­Si, sa­va­ra­u­doa, rom res­po­ndent­Ta ume­te­so­ba ar flob­da srulKofilad saliteraturo qar­Tuls da ma­Ti me­tKve­le­bac uf­ro `bu­neb­ri­vi~ iKo. xo­lo uka­nas­knel xans, sa­Ko­vel­Tao ganaT­le­bis pi­ro­beb­Si ore­no­v­ne­ba (me­grul-qar­Tu­li) al­baT ga­rkve­ul­wi­lad `zGu­davs~ enob­riv Cve­vas. am­gva­ri ino­va­cia Cans -eb-ia­ni for­me­bi. mag., i. Kif­Si­Zis teq­st­Si for­ma afxa­nak-eb-s _ ena qogˆmu­u­cxa­des jir­xo­lo afxa­na­kebs (Kif. 5, 5) `es gamo­u­cxa­des ori­ve am­xa­na­gebs~ _ Se­iZ­le­ba Se­cdo­mad Ca­gveT­va­la, rom ara msgav­si Se­mTxve­ve­bi k. sa­mu­Si­as teq­steb­Si:




na­bi­J-eb-c:

`da­i­kun­ta­renc na­biJebc (sam. 12, 6-8) `da­gi­mok­lebs na­bi­Jebs~;

Ta­va­d-eb­-cia:

sqa­no Jgˆri va­a­kodˆ... var­Ti sqa­ni may­ko­ma­li, di­di Ta­va­deb­cia (sam. 74, 52-8, 11) `Se­n­Tvis kar­gi ar un­do­da... arc Sens mya­mels, did Ta­va­deb­so~.

Cvens teq­steb­Sic gvaqvs ase­Ti ma­ga­li­Te­bi:

ge­r-eb­-sia:

ha­va, aqi­an Jo­Go­riS me­la­lua mus ox­va­ru­dua Tqvan sa­me­fo{S} ge­reb­sia... `ha­io, aqa­u­ri ZaG­le­bis Ke­fa ras uS­ve­li­dao Tqve­ni sa­me­fos mgleb­sao~;

So­bi­l-eb-s:

qˆmur­Tum­ˆna So­bi­lebs, ga­yi­re­bu­lefs, Te rxvilˆ ka­TaS... `mo­su­lan am da­xvre­ti­li xal­xis mSob­le­bi, sa­wKle­bi~...

ab­ra­gebs:

oy­ko­mal no­ko­bu­e­na ga­yi­re­bul ab­ra­gebs... `sa­yme­li ndo­me­bi­aT ga­yir­ve­bul ab­ra­gebs~...
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   19


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©anasahife.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət