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Time spent vigilant


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Appendix. Relationships between vigilance and group size in birds. Three components are considered, namely time spent vigilant, scan frequency and scan duration. For each component, the coefficient of correlation of the relationship with group size is provided when available along with the level of significance of the relationship. Ecological variables and the context for each study are provided. Control for food refers to whether food availability was controlled during the study by the researcher. Multivariable treatment refers to whether the statistical model relating vigilance to group size included group size only or group size and additional variables.

























Time spent vigilant

Scan frequency

Scan duration







Scientific name

ID

Body mass (g)

Context of study

Control for food

Multivariable

Sample size

Vigilance alone (%)

r adj.

Significant

r adj.

Significant

r adj.

Significant

Reference

Year

Anser albifrons

1

2700




no

no

37

23.00




yes













Lazarus

1972

Sturnus vulgaris

2

87.6




yes

no

236

47.00




yes




yes







Powell

1974

Ardea herodias

3

2480




yes

yes

381













no







Krebs

1974

Quiscalus mexicanus

4

222

males

no

no

37




-0.030

no













Smith

1977

Quiscalus mexicanus

5

222

females

no

no

67




-0.250

yes













Smith

1977

Junco phaeonotus

6

20.4




yes

no

97

28.10

-0.600

yes













Caraco

1979

Numenius arquata

7

742




no

no

42

16.20




yes













Abramson

1979

Junco hyemalis

8

19.3




no

no

185













yes







Goldman

1980

Passer domesticus

9

28

cattleshed

yes

yes

54










-0.053

no







Barnard

1980

Passer domesticus

10

28

field

yes

yes

98










-0.479

yes







Barnard

1980

Sturnus vulgaris

11

87.6

centre

no

no

39

27.30

-0.910

yes













Jennings and Evans

1980

Sturnus vulgaris

12

87.6

edge

no

no

38

27.30

-0.570

yes













Jennings and Evans

1980

Struthio camelus

13

111000




no

no

70

34.90




yes




yes




no

Bertram

1980

Passer domesticus

14

28




no

no

455










-0.863

yes




no

Elgar and Catterall

1981

Corvus frugilegus

15

489




no

no

139

56.00

-0.631

yes













Waite

1981

Junco phaeonotus

16

20.4




yes

no

215







yes




yes

0.03

no

Pulliam et al.

1982

Chionis minor

17

625




no

yes

75

3.00

-0.368

yes













Burger

1982

Passer domesticus

18

28




yes

no

5




-0.870

yes







-0.76

no

Elcavage and Caraco

1983

Passer domesticus

19

28




yes

no

57

80.67

-0.570

yes

0.18

no

-0.37

yes

Studd et al.

1983

Turdus pilaris

20

106

one species

no

yes

95







yes




yes







Barnard and Stephens

1983

Turdus iliacus

21

61.2

one species

no

yes

35







no




no







Barnard and Stephens

1983

Arenaria interpres

22

134




no

yes

284










-0.294

yes







Fleischer

1983

Uraeginthus bengalus

23

9.9

males

no

no

39

6.70




yes













Hamed and Evans

1984

Uraeginthus bengalus

24

9.9

females

no

no




3.10




yes













Hamed and Evans

1984

Picoides pubescens

25

27.5




no

no

160

11.10







-0.866

yes







Sullivan

1984

Streptopelia risoria

26

152

high risk

yes

no

22







yes













Lendrem

1984

Streptopelia risoria

27

152

low risk

yes

no

22







yes













Lendrem

1984

Vanellus vanellus

28

211




no

yes

39







no




no







Barnard and Thompson

1985

Pluvialis apricaria

29

214




no

yes

298







no




yes (+)







Barnard and Thompson

1985

Passer domesticus

30

28

high risk

yes

no

109










-0.52

yes







Elgar

1986

Passer domesticus

31

28

low risk

yes

no

94










-0.484

yes







Elgar

1986

Haliaeetus leucocephalus

32

4130




yes

yes

110







no




yes




no

Knight and Knight

1986

Passer domesticus

33

28

no wall, near

yes

yes

75

52.00




yes













Lima

1987

Passer domesticus

34

28

no wall, far

yes

yes

105

37.00




yes













Lima

1987
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