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TAH Lesson Plan


Nancy Rogalsky


Grades 4-6


Loyalist or Patriot – Choosing Sides

Subject Area(s)

Social Studies with an integration of language arts


The Revolutionary War posed problems for Colonists. The decision

whether to remain loyal to Britain or to break away and form a

new nation was fraught with danger for individuals and families. These

lessons will explore the reasons why colonists chose to support the Patriot cause to form a new nation or the Loyalist cause to remain British

subjects. Students will read and discuss The Forgotten Flag:

Revolutionary Struggle in Connecticut by Frances Y. Evan

as an introduction to the concept of Loyalist and Patriot. The story takes place in 1779 and shows the conflict between the Connecticut militia forces led by Colonel Whiting against British forces led by Generals Garth and

Tryon followed by a British raid on Fairfield, Connecticut.

Essential Understanding

The decision of which side to support in the Revolutionary War was not an easy to decision to make.

Dangers and economic consequences were present for both Loyalists

(Tories) and Patriots (Whigs).

Both Loyalists and Patriots committed acts of aggression against those

who supported an opposing side.

Essential Questions

What factors influenced Colonists in their decisions to become Loyalists or Patriots?

CT Standards

Social Studies

1.1 Demonstrate an understanding of significant events and themes in

United States history.

1.2 Describe the importance of significant events in local and Connecticut history and their connection to United States history.

2.1 Access and gather information from a variety of primary and secondary sources including electronic media (maps, charts, graphs, images, artifacts, recordings, and text).

2.2. Interpret information from a variety of primary and secondary sources including electronic media (maps, charts, graphs, images, artifacts,

recordings, and text).

2.3. Create various forms of written work (e.g. journal, essay, blog Web

page, brochure) to demonstrate and understanding of history and social studies issues.

2.4 Demonstrate an ability to participate in social studies discourse through informed discussion, debate, and effective oral presentations.

3.2 Analyze and evaluate human acts in historical and/or contemporary contexts from alternative points of view.


4.42. Elicit, discuss and respect the opinions of others about written, oral

and visual texts.

4.43. Share opinions and judgments based on texts.


Students will understand that choosing to support either the Patriot cause

or the Loyalist cause involved consequences for the individual colonist and

his/her family.

Students will understand possible reasons why colonists might support

the Loyalist or the Patriot cause.

Students will be able to explain possible reasons and consequences for choosing to support the Loyalist cause.

Students will be able to explain possible reasons and consequences for choosing to support the Patriot cause.


Day One

At least one copy of the book - Evan, Frances Y. The Forgotten Flag: Revolutionary Struggle in Connecticut. Shippensburg: White Mane Kids,

2003. Print.

Revolutionary war film at”

Loyalist-Patriot Activity Sheet

Loyalist-Patriot Answer Key

Sorting Out the Two Revolutionary Georges Homework Activity Sheet

Sorting Out the Two Georges Answer Key

Printouts from the Websites:

Day Two

Printout from the Website:

Battle of Lexington Homework Activity Sheet

Day 3

Printouts from the Websites:

Double Bubble Chart available at

Quaker position (Go to Essays and choose “Despise the Mean Distinction …”)

Those Who Fought

Treatment of Loyalists at

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

The Revolution on the Home Front

Movie of Life During the Revolution and Differences in Attitudes at


Patriot-Loyalist Homework Activity Sheet

Patriot-Loyalist Homework Activity Answer Key


Assessment Rubric

Day 1

Details of the Activity

Previously students will have read or listened to Evan, Frances Y. The Forgotten Flag: Revolutionary Struggle in Connecticut. Shippensburg: White Mane Kids, 2003. Print. Use the film Revolutionary War ( 3 minutes) to

introduce aspects of the Revolutionary war at:

The teacher will review with students the terms Loyalist and Patriot

and discuss with the students some of the Loyalist and Patriot acts and consequences that occurred in the novel. Students in groups of 4 will

complete the Loyalist-Patriot Activity Sheet followed by a whole class



Students will use the information that they learned in class and additional information on King George III to decide if quotes and information pertain

to George III or George Washington. The teacher will print out Rebellion

in the Colonies for students to use as an information source at

Students will complete the activity - Sorting Out the Two Revolutionary Georges using information from the print-out.

Day 2

Details of the Activity

Connecticut Loyalists

In this lesson studentts will learn about the Battles of Lexington and

Concord. The Second Company of the Governors Foot Guard of

Connecticut responded to the news of the battle by marching to Cambridge, Massachusetts to help the Patriot cause.

The teacher will have students in groups of 4 compare their homework

From Day 1 regarding a comparison of George III with George


For information on the Battle of Lexington, Teachers will print out The

Shot Heard Round the World

Students will work in groups of 4 to answer and discuss the following questions:

1. Did the Battle of Lexington occur before or after the Declaration of Independence was signed?

2. Who is fighting in the Battle of Lexington and what are they fighting


3. List at least 2 questions you have about the information in the article.

The teacher will lead a whole class discussion to summarize the information

from the article. Students’ questions may be answered or posted for

further research.

Connecticut Connection

The Second Company of the Governors Foot Guard was formed in New

Haven in December of 1774 and 65 men signed the role book at that time.

As we, the subscribers, are desirous to encourage the Military Art in the

town of New Haven, and in order to have a well disciplined Company in

said town, have agreed with Edward Burke to teach us the military

exercise for the consideration of three pounds lawful money per month,

till such time as we shall think ourselves expert thereon. We then propose

to form ourselves into a Company, choose officers and agree upon some uniform dress, such as a red coat, white vest, white breeches and

stockings, black half leggins, or any other dress that may be thought suitable. We also agree that we will endeavor to furnish ourselves with

guns and bayonets, as may be found necessary. (But no person shall be obliged to equip himself as above by signing this agreement if he desires dismission before he signs other articles.) This agreement only obliges

every signer to pay his proportional part of the expense of instruction, etc."

When news of the conflict at Lexington and Concord reached Connecticut

on April 21, 1775. Some 58 of the Guard voted to march to the assistance

of their fellow patriots in Massachusetts. The next day, April 22, Benedict Arnold, the fiery young commander of the Second Company, assembled the men, in full dress, on the New Haven Green. They received the blessing of

Rev. Jonathan Edwards, then marching up to Beer's Tavern, Arnold

demanded of the Selectmen, the key to the King's powder. The Selectmen were reluctant to yield. Arnold, shouting, "None but the Almighty God shall prevent my marching," forcefully persuaded them to turn over the key enabling him to claim the powder, ball and flint and march with his men to

the aid of their fellow patriots in Boston.

Information on The Second Company of the Governor’s Foot Guard along

with a picture of their uniform can be found at:


keys to the powder


Use the Battle of Lexington Activity to examine the Battle of Lexington picture.

Day 3

Details of the Activity

In this lesson students will learn more about reasons and consequences for choosing to support the Patriot or the Loyalist cause. Students will watch

the Movie of Life During the Revolution and Differences in Attitudes at

Students will be paired to read information about Loyalists and Patriots. Groups will be assigned different articles to read:

Stories From the Revolution – Those Who Fought found at

Why the War Came found at

Treatment of Loyalists at

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

The Revolution on the Home Front

Information about Quaker Positions During the Revolution -"Despise the

mean Distinctions [these] Times Have Made": The Complexity of Patriotism and Quaker Loyalism in One Pennsylvania Family found at (Go to Essays and choose “Despise the

Mean Distinction …”

(This is a long article. It may be broken into parts or you may prefer to use


They will work in pairs to compare Patriots and Loyalists using a double

bubble chart. A Double Bubble Chart is available at

Type in double bubble chart in the search feature of the website. They will use information from the movie and the assigned article to fill in their

organizer. This will be followed by a whole class discussion to combine information to make a class chart.


Complete the Patriot- Loyalist Homework Activity. Students will read

statements and decide whether a Patriot or a Loyalist made the statements.

They will write the reasons for their choice.

Suggested Assessment/Evaluation

Choose one of the following activities to show your knowledge of the Patriot or Loyalist causes:

Choose either the word Patriot or Loyalist. Write an acrostic poem for either term.

Write and/or illustrate a recruitment brochure to convince soldiers to

join either the Continental or British Armies.

Pretend that you are a Loyalist or a Patriot. Write a letter to show

your experiences. You may choose to write about the attack on Fairfield,

CT, the Battles of Lexington and Concord or any other event occurring

between 1774 and 1781 in Colonial America.


See Patriot-Loyalist Assessment Rubric.

Possible Extensions/Resources

See below.

What Did They Say? – Scavenger Hunt Through History

Imagining Connecticut (images from Connecticut history)

Ethan Allen – Ticonderoga

Prince of Wales Regiment

Gov. Montfort Browne of New Providence in the Bahamas was kept under house arrest in Middletown, Ct. While under arrest and after he was exchanged to the British Army he recruited loyalists to fight with the British Army.

Williamsburg - Loyalty or Liberty

This is an interactive website sponsored by Williamsburg. Students take the role of a slave who obtains valuable information about troop movements and then decide whether the slave should give the information to the Patriots or the British.

Benedict Arnold

Map of 13 original colonies

Official Connecticut history and information site for children|

The Revolution day by day

The Tories of Connecticut
Works Cited

Barbara, Brenner. If You Were There in 1776. New York: Simon & Schuster for Young Readers, 1994. Print.

Beller, Susan P. The Revolutionary War. Tarrytown: Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 2002. Print.

Burgan, Michael, and Brendan McConville, PH.D. Voices from Colonial Ameria: Connecticut 1614-1776. Washington, C.C.: National Geographic, 2007. Print.

Dubois, Muriel L. The Connecticut Colony. Mankato: Capstone, 2006. Print.

Evan, Frances Y. The Forgotten Flag: Revolutionary Struggle in Connecticut. Shippensburg: White Mane Kids, 2003. Print.

Hakim, Joy. From Colonies to Country 1735-1791. New York: Oxford UP, 2003. Print.

Herbert, Janis. The American Revolution for Kids: A History with 21 Activities. Chicago: Chicago Review, 2002. Print.

Malaspina, Ann. A Primary Source History of the Colony of Connecticut. New York: Rosen Group, 2006. Print.

Marrin, Albert. The War for Independence: The Story of the American Revolution. New York:

Anthem Macmillan, 1988. Print.

Meltzer, Milton, ed. The American Revolutionaries: A History in Their Own Words 1750-1800. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1987. Print.

O'Dell, Scott. Sarah Bishop. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1980. Print.

Schanzer, Rosalyn. George VS. George: The American Revolution as Seen from Both Sides. Washington, D. C.: National Geographic, 2004. Print.

Turner, Ann. Dear America Series, Love Thy Neighbor: The Tory Diary of Prudence Emerson. New York: Scholastic, Inc. 2004. Print.

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