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Summary of study results for efficacy Author, Year, Reference number


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Table 3. Summary of study results for efficacy

Author, Year, Reference number

Armstrong and Ernst 2001[1]

Walach et. al.
2001[2]


Cram
2004[3]


Pintov et. al.
2005[4]


Halberstein et. al. 2007[5]

Country

United Kingdom

Germany

USA

Israel

United States

Study design

RCT

Cross-over RCT

RCT

RCT

RCT

Risk of bias

High (loss to follow up 55%)

High (inadequate randomization)

High (no description of randomization or masking)

High (loss to follow up 42.5%)

Low

Number of patients

100

61

24

40

111

Loss to follow-up

55 %

9.8 %

None

42.5 %

None

Study population

Students with examination anxiety

Students with examination anxiety registered to take at least two exams that two weeks apart

Participants put under stress with the Paced Serial Arithmetic Task (PSAT)

Children with clinical diagnosis of any subtype of ADHD

Nursing students with examination anxiety

Patient age (range and/or average, in years)

Not reported

28

46.2 (18-67)

7-11

25.6 (18-49)

Indication for BFR

Examination anxiety

Examination anxiety

Stress

ADHD

Examination anxiety

Intervention

1-4 doses of Five Flower Remedy (Rescue Remedy) per day

Prunus cerasifera, Clematis vitalba, Impatiens glandulifera, Helianthemum and Ornithogalum umbellatum

At least 4 drops of a combination of 10 BFR per day:

Impatiens, mimulus, gentian, chestnut bud, rock rose, larch, cherry plum, white chestnut, scleranthus and elm

4 drops of Five Flower Remedy

Prunus cerasifera, Clematis vitalba, Impatiens glandulifera, Helianthemum and Ornithogalum umbellatum

4 drops of five flower BFR 4 times per day:

Prunus cerasifera, Clematis vitalba, Impatiens glandulifera, Helianthemum and Ornithogalum umbellatum

Four drops of Rescue Remedy every 20 minutes over 3 hours:

Prunus cerasifera, Clematis vitalba, Impatiens glandulifera, Helianthemum and Ornithogalum umbellatum

Control

Placebo

Placebo

Placebo

Placebo

Placebo

Duration of treatment

7 days

4 weeks (two weeks before first test and two weeks before second test)

Test time 10 minutes, including baseline measurements and recovery

3 months

3 hours

Main outcome measures

State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)

German Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI-G)

Surface electromyography (sEMG), hand temperature, skin conductance

Conner’s scale

State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for Adults, S-Anxiety subscale

Results

No significant difference in State anxiety score (on the night before examination most likely to cause anxiety)between experimental and placebo groups – 51.5 in BFR group, 54.4 in placebo group (P=0.834)

No significant difference between experimental and placebo group for mean reduction in test anxiety – 5.25 in BFR groups, 7.69 in placebo group (P = 0.55)

BFR group showed a significant attenuation of stress as measured by sEMG in 2 of 6 sites. No difference in hand temperature or skin conductance between groups.

No significant difference in mean Conner’s scores between experimental and placebo group before (16.59 in BFR group, 17.12 in placebo group) or after (11.90 in BFR group, 13.58 in placebo group) treatment (P not reported).

No significant difference in STAI S-Anxiety subscale between treatment and placebo. Subgroup analysis of “high anxiety” group showed a statistical …

1. Armstrong NC, Ernst E: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Bach Flower Remedy. Perfusion 1999, 11:440-446.

2. Walach H, Rilling C, Engelke U: Efficacy of Bach-flower remedies in test anxiety: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with partial crossover. J Anxiety Disord 2001, 15:359-366.

3. Cram JR: Experimental Paper A Psychological and Metaphysical Study of Dr. Edward Bach's Flower Essence Stress Formula. Sublte Energies 2004 11.

4. Pintov S, Hochman M, Livne A, Heyman E, Lahat E: Bach flower remedies used for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children--a prospective double blind controlled study. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2005, 9:395-398.

5. Halberstein R, DeSantis L, Sirkin A, Padron-Fajardo V, Ojeda-Vaz M: Healing With Bach(R) Flower Essences: Testing a Complementary Therapy. COMPLEMENT HEALTH PRACT REV 2007, 12:3.





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