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Study guide s. W. 245 Spring 2010 Stewart Chapter 1

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STUDY GUIDE - S.W. 245 Spring 2010 Stewart
 Chapter 1

1. (p. 31) Which of the following are considered dimensions of thanatology?

1. psychological
2. anthropological
3. political
4. rational 
A. 1 and 2
B. 2 and 4
C. 1, 2 and 3
D. 2, 3 and 4

2. (p. 21) Suse Lowenstein's work Dark Elegy functions as a reminder that 

A. death is a dark figure.
B. life is fragile and the survivors have to live with the loss.
C. classical and Christian symbols of death can be combined.
D. death can be dark and lonely.


3. (p. 27) It is important for police officers to receive death education so they 

A. can better appreciate the meaning of life.
B. can serve as funeral assistants.
C. will learn not to suppress their feelings.
D. will not experience a phobia related to death scenes.

4. (p. 35) Approximately how much has the average life expectancy in the United States increased since 1900? 

A. 5 years
B. 15 years
C. 30 years
D. 45 years

5. (p. 39) Which of the following BEST describes the phrase, "medical technology that seems to one person a godsend, extending life, may seem to another a curse"? 

A. People do not know how to manipulate machinery.
B. People do not believe in the technology.
C. The effect of new technology is unknown.
D. The effect of new technology involves personal and social consequences.

 6. (p. 33) In reviewing the status of research and practice in thanatology, Herman Feifel points out that the 

A. fear of death is a monolithic variable.
B. human mind operates on various levels of reality, or finite provinces of meaning.
C. human mind operates in an interdependent, not autonomous, manner.
D. conscious fear of death is unrelated to innate fears.


7. (p. 19) Rembrandt van Rijn's work, The Suicide of Lucretia, illustrates what theme? 
A. natural death
B. sudden, unexpected death
C. fear of death
D. suicide


8. (p. 27) The major contribution of Elisabeth Kübler-Ross's book On Death and Dying was its focus on the 
A. social practices and customs related to death.
B. meaning of death.
C. common patterns associated with near-death experiences.
D. caring for dying patients.


9. (p. 16) All of the following are musical expressions associated with death, EXCEPT: 
A. lament.
B. kanikau.
C. dirge.
D. hautsang.


10. (p. 33) In reviewing death anxiety research, Robert Kastenbaum says that it 
A. allows individuals to enjoy the illusion that death has been studied.
B. gives individuals an adequate picture of how death is perceived by human beings.
C. is especially valuable in answering gender-related questions.
D. is especially useful in answering questions of practitioners working with patients and bereaved people.
Chapter 2

11. (p. 60) The acquisition of a mature understanding of death is part of the developmental process known as 

A. cognition.
B. maturation.
C. socialization.
D. ethnocentrism.

 12. (p. 51) Which theorist is associated with the developmental model that emphasizes changes in attitudes toward death during different psychosocial stages? 

A. Mark Speece
B. Erik Erikson
C. Jean Piaget
D. Sigmund Freud


13. (p. 74) When writer and musician Ice T refers to the "killing fields" in American society, he is calling attention to the 
A. tobacco industry's attempt to attract young people to cigarettes.
B. impact of drunk driving on motor vehicle deaths.
C. mounting death toll from environmental pollution.
D. prevalence of drug-related violence and gang warfare.


14. (p. 52) Erik Erikson's model of psychosocial development provides insight into how 
A. children's views of death are innate.
B. children's views of death are solidified at an early age.
C. children attend to different issues at different stages.
D. relationships have little effect on a child's views of death.


15. (p. 55) In the study done by Helen Swain, what percentage of children said that death is unlikely or avoidable? 

A. 25 percent
B. 33 percent
C. 50 percent
D. 66 percent

16. (p. 48) In discussing how people understand death, the term "noncorporeal continuity" refers to the idea that 

A. death occurs suddenly, without warning.
B. death occurs following chronic illness.
C. human beings survive in some form after the death of the physical body.
D. human beings are "at peace" after the death of their physical body.

 17. (p. 69) According to the text, what percentage of Americans are affiliated with a religious tradition? 

A. 60 percent
B. 70 percent
C. 80 percent
D. 90 percent


18. (p. 68) The concept of religiosity contains all of the following dimensions EXCEPT the person's 
A. religious commitment.
B. knowledge about the religion's traditions.
C. religious affiliation.
D. emotional ties to a religion.


19. (p. 57) Characteristic of the concrete operational stage is the use of 
A. motor abilities.
B. logical thinking.
C. emotional control.
D. regressive tendencies.


20. (p. 67) The text cites the lullaby "Rockabye Baby" to illustrate the point that 

A. some lullabies are improper bedtime stories.
B. a surprising number of lullabies contain messages about death.
C. each ending in life is followed by renewal.
D. the bedtime story, "Little Red Riding Hood," contains death imagery.


Chapter 3

21. (p. 100) What changes occurred in the Dance of Death as a result of the plague? 

A. Death became feared, something to be avoided at all costs.
B. Death became a radical, violent break with the living.
C. Death became commonplace, an accepted part of life.
D. Death became associated with Satan, something evil.



22. (p. 101) All of the following are characteristic of "invisible death" EXCEPT: 
A. The individuals does all they can to delay death.
B. Death is the final challenge in life.
C. Professionals care for the dying.
D. There are no witnesses to a loved one's dying.

 23. (p. 90) Traditional societies tend to view disease and death 

A. as a private event in which the individual is able to come to terms with his death in his own manner.
B. very differently from what can be found in the context of preliterate society's modern medicine.
C. as something that occurs individually which should not be interfered with by anyone other than one's family.
D. as a public event that can ultimately involve the entire community.


24. (p. 111) El Dia de los Muertos, the Mexican Day of the Dead, blends Catholic, Spanish, and Indian rituals. This celebration exemplifies an attitude toward death that 

A. views death in an open and often ironic manner.
B. perceives death as an incomprehensible phenomenon.
C. perceives death as the final chapter of a person's existence.
D. views death as the ultimate test.

 25. (p. 95) In the Middle Ages, a person's impending death usually represented a time to

1. receive absolution.
2. gather friends and family.
3. call the mortician.
4. pardon wrongdoing. 
A. 1 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 1 and 4


26. (p. 125) Which of the following are common in the practice of the traditional form of recuerdo?
1. tells the story of a person's life in a heroic manner
2. is presented as a written ballad
3. funeral is referred to as a "home-going" ceremony honoring the spirit of the deceased
4. gathering at the gravesite to bid god speed to the deceased 
A. 1 and 2
B. 3 and 4
C. 1 and 3
D. 2 and 4


27. (p. 119) In Celtic societies, the intermediary between the world of humankind and the domain of the supernatural was a 

A. medicine man.
B. shaman.
C. druid.
D. swami.

28. (p. 113-114) Which of the following are aspects of Chinese funeral practices?

1. There is a great emphasis on harmony between bereaved and deceased.
2. A festival known as chi'ing ming is celebrated.
3. A butsudan can be found in the household.
4. The rituals follow Taoist traditions. 
A. 1, 2 and 4
B. 1, 3 and 4
C. 2, 3 and 4
D. 1 and 4


29. (p. 93) Historically, the Christian concept of heaven has been an important feature of attitudes toward death in Western culture. According to the text, how have Western attitudes toward gaining heavenly salvation changed? 

A. In the early medieval period people believed salvation came from prayer and sacrifice; later they believed salvation came from acts of charity toward others.
B. In the early medieval period people believed salvation was gained by one's life work; later they viewed salvation as a gift from God.
C. In the early medieval period people believed salvation was gained by strict adherence to the Church's commandments; later they believed faith in God was needed for salvation.
D. In the early medieval period people believed salvation came through the good graces of the Church; later they believed salvation was gained as a result of one's own conduct in life.


30. (p. 109) The LoDagaa of Africa deal with death in the following manner: 

A. They tend to avoid the topic of death.
B. They use mourning restraints to show degrees of relationship to the deceased.
C. They elect to withhold the topic of death from their youth until they reach adulthood.
D. They proceed with the funeral process as quickly as possible to allow the deceased to experience peace.


Chapter 4

31. (p. 161) For a person who dies as a result of disease, the death certificate is usually signed by the 

A. county coroner.
B. state medical examiner.
C. attending physician.
D. next of kin.

32. (p. 127) Which of the following are components of a "death system," as described by Robert Kastenbaum?

1. places
2. times
3. objects
4. regulations 
A. 1, 3 and 4
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 2 and 3
D. 2, 3 and 4


33. (p. 128) Which of the following reasons help explain why disasters in the United States have increased in recent years?
1. Over half of the population now lives within 50 miles of the coastline.
2. Industrialism increases human activities which may lead to disaster.
3. Modern communication leads to better warning systems prior to disaster.
4. Environmental pollution leads to new forms of disasters. 
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4

34. (p. 133) Which of the following items is NOT matched correctly? 

A. murder: the deliberate intentional killing of another human being
B. voluntary manslaughter: the killing of another human being in performance of a public duty or in self-defense
C. involuntary manslaughter: the unintentional killing of another human being as a result of criminal negligence
D. noncriminal homicide: the killing of another human being involving no gross negligence


35. (p. 151) The Uniform Anatomical gift Act was revised in what year? 

A. 1968
B. 1984
C. 1986
D. 1987

36. (p. 129) In comparing the volcanic eruptions of Mount Pelee and Mount St. Helens, the main difference mentioned in the text with respect to fatalities concerned the 

A. low population density of the area near Mount Pelee.
B. adequate early warnings in the case of Mount St. Helens.
C. mild nature of the volcanic eruption of Mount Pelee.
D. actions taken by disaster workers in the case of Mount St. Helens.


37. (p. 132-133) As a result of the Hurricane Katrina disaster, which of the following are lessons learned as summarized by security expert Stephen Flynn?
1. We have allowed protective measures that earlier generations constructed to deal with catastrophic events to erode.
2. There are insufficient resources available to respond effectively when disaster strikes.
3. Front-line decision makers need to be empowered to make decisions.
4. Material assets and personnel need to be moved out of harm's way as storms approach. 
A. 1 and 2
B. 2 and 4
C. 1, 2 and 3
D. 1, 3 and 4


38. (p. 151) Which of the following are major provisions of the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act?
1. If the person has not made a donation before death, the next of kin cannot make it regardless of the circumstances.
2. If the person has made such a gift, it cannot be revoked by his or her relatives.
3. The gift can be amended or revoked at any time before the death of the donor.
4. The time of death must be determined by a physician who is not involved in any transplantation. 
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 3 and 4
C. 1, 2 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4


39. (p. 131) What is a common shortcoming of disaster relief efforts? 
A. They lack adequate financial support.
B. They provide for physical needs, but are indifferent to the emotional needs of survivors.
C. They provide short-term support during the emergency, but neglect the long-term consequences of a disaster.
D. They fail to understand the affected communities and thus tend to make mistakes that complicate recovery.

40. (p. 157) The modes of death recognized by law include all of the following categories EXCEPT: 

A. accident.
B. homicide.
C. mature death.
D. suicide.


Chapter 5

41. (p. 180) In which country was the most influential modern hospice established? 

A. United States
B. England
C. Japan
D. Switzerland


42. (p. 174) What should a physician do after a patient's illness is diagnosed as life threatening? 

A. withhold the information from the patient
B. inform the patient indirectly
C. inform the patient honestly
D. tell the patient's family first

 43. (p. 177) The style of medical communication is important because it 

A. draws more patients to the hospital.
B. helps to change the impersonal image of hospitals.
C. decreases the family's anxiety and fear.
D. affects the outcome of treatment.


44. (p. 170) Depersonalization of the dying patient can occur when
1. an illness is not well understood.
2. physicians and nurses believe "nothing more can be done."
3. physicians and nurses avoid contact due to their own mortal fears.
4. costly medical bills remain unpaid. 
A. 1, 2 and 4
B. 1, 3 and 4
C. 2, 3 and 4
D. 1, 2 and 3


45. (p. 190) The purpose of the triage system is to 
A. use med-evac services more efficiently.
B. avoid prioritizing among patients.
C. reduce the time between injury and care.
D. standardize medical treatment.

46. (p. 173) A recent change in the relationship between medical practitioners and patients is that it has become 

A. more impersonal and distant.
B. more close and intimate.
C. less authoritarian.
D. less covenantal.

 47. (p. 194) The emphasis on cure among medical professionals can result in death being 

A. discussed objectively and openly.
B. seen as an oddity.
C. seen as a natural event.
D. viewed as a medical failure.


48. (p. 172) The "principle of symmetry" advocated by Daniel Callahan states that technology should be judged by a balance between the 

A. cost and the seriousness of the illness.
B. extension and quality of life.
C. cost and the extension of life.
D. desire to live and the cost of medical care.

 49. (p. 183-185) All of the following are challenges to hospice and palliative care EXCEPT: 

A. educating public and professionals about end-of-life care.
B. funding for services.
C. broadening access to encompass underserved patient populations.
D. lack of routinization of care and regulation.

50. (p. 185) Which of the following are included in William Lamers' "levels" of hospice care?

1. conventional hospice care
2. long-term hospice care
3. traditional hospice care
4. high-tech hospice care 
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 2, 3 and 4
C. 1, 2 and 4
D. 1, 3 and 4


Chapter 6
51. (p. 235) What type of insurance settlement allows an individual with terminal illness to sell his or her policy before death for a lump sum settlement? 
A. volume
B. viatical
C. face value
D. percentage



52. (p. 225) A wallet card signifying that an individual has completed an advance directive is urged by some commentators so that the 
A. hospital staff will know that the individual has prepared a will.
B. hospital staff will know the patient is insured.
C. individual will not be forced to receive unwanted medical care.
D. family members will not be forced to pay for the patient's hospital care.

53. (p. 233) Approximately what percentage of Americans die without making a will? 

A. 10 percent
B. 30 percent
C. 50 percent
D. 70 percent

 54. (p. 207) Ethical questions regarding the "right to die" first came to public attention in the landmark court case involving 

A. Nancy Beth Cruzan.
B. Karen Ann Quinlan.
C. Nancy Ellen Jobes.
D. Elizabeth Bouvia.


55. (p. 202) When dealing with a life-threatening disease, most doctors strive to achieve a balance between informed consent and the 

A. likelihood of coping mechanisms being present.
B. patient's ability to understand the proposed treatment.
C. patient's ability to survive during the course of the disease.
D. likelihood of patient litigation.

56. (p. 216-217) Which of the following statements presents a case against euthanasia using the "wedge" or "slippery slope" argument? 

A. "Euthanasia may or may not be ethical, but by permitting it we may unwittingly pave the way for acts that are clearly immoral."
B. "Euthanasia is contrary to the Hippocratic Oath, which pledges physicians to sustain life not take it."
C. "Euthanasia may or may not be ethical, but by permitting it we may unwittingly create a burden on the judiciary when such decisions enter the legal arena."
D. "Euthanasia is contrary to good ethical judgment because medical science is not infallible and a mistaken diagnosis could cause a needless death."


57. (p. 222) The Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care involves an agent who is 
A. assigned by the court.
B. chosen by the patient's family.
C. designated by the person executing the document.
D. recommended by health professionals.

 58. (p. 223) The Patient Self-Determination Act requires health-care facilities to do which of the following?

1. inform adult patients of their rights to accept or refuse treatment
2. refuse admission to patients who fail to sign an advance directive
3. document whether the patient has executed an advance directive
4. provide education about advance directives to staff members and the community 
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4


59. (p. 228) The conventional document used for specifying a person's wishes for the distribution of his or her estate after death is a 

A. holographic will.
B. nuncupative will.
C. formally executed will.
D. conditional will.

 60. (p. 210) The Cruzan case highlighted the need for 

A. explicit laws about the removal of artificial feeding tubes.
B. new definitions of death.
C. advance directives.
D. judicial interpretation of death-related questions.


Chapter 7

61. (p. 270-271) Which of the following are spiritual needs of dying patients?
1. need for hope and creativity
2. need to complete a will
3. need to give and receive love
4. need for meaning and purpose 
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 3 and 4
C. 1, 2 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4

 62. (p. 240) The way in which an individual copes with dying 

A. depends on the doctors' attitudes.
B. often contrasts with usual coping patterns.
C. depends mostly on the length of the illness.
D. usually resembles lifelong coping patterns.

63. (p. 260) What is ikigai ryoho? 

A. an ancient belief that if death is faced positively, a favorable afterlife will follow
B. a modern Japanese treatment for AIDS
C. a therapy to help a patient's family deal with the death of a loved one
D. a therapy that helps patients live fully and meaningfully

 64. (p. 245) The success of dealing with a crisis is largely determined by the

1. congruency of beliefs and actions.
2. social support a family receives.
3. number of children in a family.
4. socioeconomic status of a family. 
A. 1 and 2
B. 1 and 3
C. 1 and 4
D. 2 and 4


65. (p. 245) According to the open awareness concept, when in the presence of someone who is dying, one should 

A. display a confident attitude.
B. continually offer reassurance about regaining health.
C. admit feelings of uncertainty.
D. avoid contact if uncomfortable.

 66. (p. 242) Which of the following terms BEST describes the process of a person who feels responsible for bringing a terminal illness on himself or herself? 

A. dying trajectory
B. magical thinking
C. reactive thinking
D. physiological guilt

67. (p. 250) The real estate wanted advertisement in the text is used to illustrate which of the following? 

A. desires to accomplish plans that previously had been put off to be done in the future
B. the denial stage of coping with a life-threatening illness
C. a dying persons attempt to "get away from it all"
D. preparing for death and saying goodbye


68. (p. 245) Pretense, as a way of coping with painful circumstances such as a terminal illness, 
A. is never a truly effective means of coping.
B. can be a useful short-term strategy for coping.
C. rarely occurs among family members.
D. does not recur once openness is achieved.

 69. (p. 249) Which of the following are the three major psychological and behavioral patterns that individuals use in coping with the threat of death as identified by Therese Rando?

1. retreat and conservation of energy
2. attack and evaluate the threat
3. attempting to master or control the threat of death
4. exclusion from the threat of death 
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4


70. (p. 240) Cancer is acknowledged to be the 

A. number one cause of death in America.
B. most feared life-threatening illness.
C. disease for passive-type people.
D. synonym for death and dying.


Chapter 8

71. (p. 283) According to Leroy Bowman, funerals 

A. are overlaid with such ostentation that the fundamental dignity of such rites has all but disappeared.
B. are lacking in serious religious symbols, which diminishes the dignity of funeral rites.
C. have remained largely unchanged throughout history, which promotes a sense of mysticism in the experience.
D. have improved in modern society to meet the needs of the bereaved.

72. (p. 299) Which of the following is generally considered an unorthodox method of body disposition? 

A. burial
B. cryonics
C. cremation
D. donation to science

73. (p. 284) Jessica Mitford found modern funeral practices to be 

A. interesting.
B. enlightening.
C. beautiful.
D. morbid.



74. (p. 288) Itemizing funeral costs is designed to change the pattern of 
A. selecting funeral services "a la carte."
B. equating the most expensive casket with the most elaborate funeral.
C. using the layaway payment schedule.
D. paying for unnecessary and unwanted services.

75. (p. 274) The American funeral is 

A. structured around the wishes of the deceased.
B. enacted to preserve memories of the deceased.
C. focused on the welfare of the survivors.
D. seen as a vehicle for the dead to emigrate.

76. (p. 301) In which of the following countries is cremation the most common method of body disposal? 

A. Norway
B. Russia
C. India
D. Canada


77. (p. 278) When helping a bereaved family, the most important objective is to 

A. provide financial support.
B. maintain the house until the family adjusts and can proceed with a normal life.
C. demonstrate care and concern.
D. help the bereaved family adjust to a new life.

 78. (p. 302) The "ashes" left from the cremation process are 

A. 20 to 30 pounds in weight.
B. like coarse coral sand.
C. different shades according to the person's ethnicity.
D. as fine as dust.


79. (p. 290) The FTC Funeral Rule requires that mortuaries 
A. obtain express permission from the family in order to charge a fee for the embalming procedure.
B. embalm the deceased if the funeral is more than three days after death.
C. disclose all embalming fees to a federal regulatory agency.
D. use an approved list of chemicals for embalming.

80. (p. 299) Cryonics is a method of 

A. freezing.
B. mummifying.
C. cremating.
D. embalming.


Chapter 9 

81. (p. 328) According to Theresa Rando, which of the following may especially complicate grief?
1. loss of a child
2. bereaved person's perceived lack of social support
3. relationship between bereaved and deceased that was intimate and friendly.
4. bereaved's perception that the death was somehow preventable. 
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4

82. (p. 344) Why are funeral rituals especially important in modern societies? 

A. They provide an opportunity to contemplate the deceased one final time.
B. They affirm the importance and sanctity of life.
C. They allow for the controlled expression of emotion.
D. They provide social support for the bereaved.


83. (p. 320) Telling the "story" of grief can help in coping with loss in which of the following ways? 

A. Sharing the story provides emotional relief and promotes the search for meaning.
B. The story can be told without the constraint of having to conform to a particular model of how it should be.
C. The story brings people together in mutual support of one another.
D. All of the above.


84. (p. 324) Feelings of anger toward a deceased loved one should be 
A. experienced and expressed.
B. neutralized by thought and understanding.
C. denied until they go away.
D. given no attention.


85. (p. 339) Factors that can restimulate grief for survivors of a homicide are termed 

A. recurring events.
B. secondary events.
C. trigger events.
D. grief events.


86. (p. 318) "Communications" between the living and the dead as expressed in art, literature, and song are examples of what coping mechanism? 
A. tasks of mourning
B. maintaining bonds with the deceased
C. denial and avoidance
D. expressive mourning


87. (p. 343) The controversy over the value of grief counseling is mainly focused on 

A. who should provide the support: grief counselor, family and/or friend.
B. the suggestion that grief counseling may be more harmful than helpful.
C. the circumstances in which survivors seek professional help.
D. the differentiation between grief counseling and grief therapy.


88. (p. 315) Which of the following contains the three primary tasks identified by Erich Lindemann necessary for successfully managing grief? 
A. a feeling of loss, a feeling of loneliness, a feeling of acceptance
B. sense of anger, sense of guilt, sense of sadness
C. accepting the fact of loss, adapting to life without the deceased, forming new relationships
D. allowing oneself to feel the emotions of grief, expressing grief emotions, understanding one's emotions of grief


89. (p. 336) Of the following modes of death, which is likely to involve the LEAST traumatic grief? 

A. suicide
B. terminal illness
C. auto accident
D. homicide


90. (p. 313) Which of the following are usually identified as physical symptoms of grief?

1. shortness of breath
2. muscle weakness
3. empty feeling in the abdomen
4. cerebral placidity 
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4

Chapter 10

91. (p. 374) The well child in a family where a sibling or parent is terminally ill 
A. can balance conflicting emotions by participating in the family crises.
B. should avoid participation in the family crises and live as normally as possible.
C. often copes with crises worse than other children of the same age.
D. usually feels pressure from parents to maintain composure.

92. (p. 359) When caring for a seriously ill child, all of the following are true EXCEPT: 

A. changes in routine add to the child's anxieties.
B. parents should focus on the parenting role.
C. parents should try to play the role of nurse.
D. parents should try to minimize stress and make the child as comfortable as possible.


93. (p. 375) When discussing death in conjunction with religious beliefs, parents should 
A. convince children of the truth of their faith.
B. remind children that the world functions in mysterious ways.
C. introduce children to other religious viewpoints.
D. remind children that religious viewpoints are beliefs.


94. (p. 356) For terminally ill older children and adolescents, the concern with death focuses mainly on 

A. anxiety related to the death of other children.
B. separation anxiety.
C. fears about mutilation and pain.
D. personification of death.


95. (p. 373) The text uses the example of the young woman who avoided fruit seeds into adulthood to illustrate how 

A. illogical children's perceptions of death can be.
B. children can become confused by metaphors.
C. common items can scare children.
D. childhood fears sometimes never disappear.

96. (p. 370) All of the following are support groups that help children cope with death EXCEPT: 

A. Camp Jamie.
C. The Meditational Healing Society.
D. The Compassionate Friends.


97. (p. 361) When a child feels he or she played a role in the events that led to the death of a relative or friend, what emotion is likely to be predominately experienced? 

A. sadness
B. anger
C. guilt
D. hate

98. (p. 374-375) In explaining death to children, statements like "gone away for a long sleep" and "up in heaven" 

A. allow for misconceptions and literal interpretations.
B. must be followed by an explanation about life after death.
C. help make sense of death to young children.
D. give a clear picture and explanation about death.

 99. (p. 369) Children seem to cope more easily with their feelings about the death or serious illness of a family member when they are 

A. not close to the deceased or ill family member.
B. excluded from the funeral proceedings.
C. included in the grief process.
D. educated about the dying process in school.

100. (p. 354-355) The example in the text of a 27-month-old boy who fears he will die if not given a bottle of sugar water is intended to show that 

A. children's views of death are often confused.
B. children form concepts about death early in life.
C. children's views of death are typically based on isolated incidents.
D. children often think of cars running out of gas as similar to people dying.

Chapter 11

101. (p. 389) As medically defined, stillbirth refers to the death of a child occurring between 

A. the 20th week of pregnancy and birth.
B. conception and the 12th week of pregnancy.
C. the 12th week of pregnancy and birth.
D. birth and 28 days after birth.

 102. (p. 403-404) Of the following factors, the one LEAST likely to influence the outcome of spousal bereavement is the 

A. age of the surviving spouse.
B. involvement of the couple's children.
C. gender of the surviving spouse.
D. quality of medical and nursing staff.


103. (p. 388) A major source of conflict among bereaved couples in coping with the death of a child relates to 

A. differences in beliefs and expectations.
B. the cause of the child's death.
C. their view of themselves as a couple.
D. their view of themselves as parents.


104. (p. 387-388) Which of the following statements are TRUE about parental bereavement in couples?
1. A feeling of estrangement and a strong bond can occur between the parents at the same time.
2. A partner's behavior can be misinterpreted by the other and can cause conflict.
3. Different grieving styles may decrease the couple's sense of commonality.
4. Urging each other to be strong in public is an important component of getting past the grieving phase and into the healing phase of bereavement. 
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4

105. (p. 391) A parent's attachment to a child begins 

A. when the child can speak and communicate.
B. once the child develops a unique personality.
C. before the child is born.
D. during the delivery of the child.

106. (p. 408) The elderly tend to be more 

A. monotonous than other age groups.
B. individually distinct than other age groups.
C. carefree than other age groups.
D. active than other age groups.


107. (p. 385) During the stage of psychosocial development termed "young adulthood," the conflict to be resolved involves 

A. generativity and stagnation.
B. integrity and despair.
C. trust and autonomy.
D. intimacy and isolation.

 108. (p. 408) Which of the following are reasons given by aged people for accepting death?

1. Death is preferable to inactivity.
2. Death is preferable to becoming a burden.
3. Death is preferable to living alone.
4. Death is preferable to loss of mental faculties. 
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4


109. (p. 394) For newly bereaved parents of a stillborn child, their recovery from grief is aided by 
A. removing the stillborn as quickly as possible.
B. seeing and holding the baby.
C. signing the death certificate and avoiding the child.
D. taking home the baby's remains.


110. (p. 390) Giving up a child for adoption is an example of 
A. emotional stress.
B. philanthropy.
C. reproductive loss.
D. cruel parenting.

Chapter 12

111. (p. 442) Of the individuals who commit suicide, approximately what percentage write suicide notes? 
A. 10 percent
B. 25 percent
C. 45 percent
D. 65 percent


112. (p. 421) The largest mass suicide in modern times occurred in 
A. Jonestown, Guyana.
B. New Delhi, India.
C. Poznan, Poland.
D. Tokyo, Japan.


113. (p. 418) Which of the following are limitations of the psychological autopsy?

1. retrospective nature
2. the individual of interest is not available for examination
3. over abundance of standardized procedures
4. third-party informants may distort representations of the decedent for a variety of reasons 
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4

114. (p. 440-441) According to a study of suicide notes, which of the following was a critical factor cited by individuals who used an "active" or graphic method of attempting suicide? 

A. rejection
B. depression
C. substance abuse
D. alienation


115. (p. 441) According to the ranking of lethality given in the text, which of the following methods is the LEAST likely to result in suicide? 
A. drowning
B. cutting
C. gunshot
D. poison


116. (p. 437) A mutual arrangement wherein two or more individuals decide to kill themselves at the same time is known as a 
A. cluster suicide.
B. mass extermination.
C. suicide pact.
D. group suicide.


117. (p. 417) A psychological autopsy is 

A. an individual's perspective of death.
B. an individual's attitude toward death.
C. a method of determining how a person feels about death.
D. a method of determining a person's thoughts and feelings prior to death.

118. (p. 432) Brian Barry's description of pro-life forces includes all of the following EXCEPT: 

A. a belief that problems can promote growth.
B. a belief that problems are inherently unsolvable.
C. a willingness to struggle.
D. the fear of death.


119. (p. 416) Coroners tend to list suicide as the cause of death 

A. in most cases.
B. only when a separate and distinct cause cannot be determined.
C. only when circumstances unequivocally justify such a determination.
D. when they believe that foul play was involved.


120. (p. 431) Which of the following are considered risk factors that influence suicidal behaviors?
1. culture
2. personality
3. group situation
4. biological factors 
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4


Chapter 13

121. (p. 476) Which of the following types of media played a particularly vital role in the acquisition and exchange of information following the World Trade Center attack on September 11? 
A. radio
B. Internet
C. television
D. newspaper

122. (p. 473) Which of the following statements support a negative response in treating terrorism as war?

1. War is generally defined as a state of usually open and declared armed hostile conflict between states or nations.
2. War is designed to attract attention and generate widespread fear.
3. War is generally viewed as an activity conducted according to socially recognized rules.
4. War is aimed to destroy the sense of security people normally feel in familiar places. 
A. 1 and 2
B. 1 and 3
C. 2 and 3
D. 2 and 4

 123. (p. 462) Studies show violence is reduced when 

A. early curfews obeyed.
B. social interaction is kept at a minimum.
C. handgun laws are enforced.
D. communities work together to create a safe and orderly environment.


124. (p. 456-456) When someone involved in a high-risk sport suffers an accident and dies, others in that sport often talk about how the deceased failed to take adequate precautions. Why? 
A. This explanation enables others to continue in the sport while not focusing on the inherent dangers of the activity.
B. This explanation allows others to continue with the sport realizing that an accident could also happen to them.
C. This explanation allows others to rethink the sport and consider ways to improve upon its safety.
D. This explanation prevents others from thinking about the individual, so they can continue to focus on the activity and its dangers.


125. (p. 470) In his classic work, On War, Karl von Clausewitz, defined war as 
A. hell.
B. the continuation of political policy by other means.
C. a condition of hostilities between two opposing forces.
D. a struggle between two nations where lives are lost.

126. (p. 470) War creates a "phantom army" composed of 

A. civilians who are caught in the middle of combat.
B. patriots and older veterans who cheer on the troops.
C. politicians and media pundits who generate hatred for the enemy and desire for victory.
D. spouses, children, and parents who serve at home.


127. (p. 458) In what fraction of all murders is a gun used? 

A. one-quarter
B. one-third
C. one-half
D. two-thirds

128. (p. 464) According to studies by the International Red Cross, what percentage of casualties in modern warfare are civilians rather than military combatants? 

A. 20 percent
B. 40 percent
C. 70 percent
D. 90 percent


129. (p. 468) Genocide involves the effort to 
A. determine the biological roots of violence.
B. destroy an entire nation or human group.
C. eradicate social practices that favor violence.
D. modify genetic factors that cause violence.


130. (p. 467) In combat situations, most soldiers are motivated to fight because of their 

A. will to survive.
B. sense of camaraderie.
C. sense of patriotism.
D. desire to be heroic.


Chapter 14

131. (p. 502) According to Islamic tradition, the angelic beings Munkar and Nakir 
A. punish wrongdoers with death.
B. interrogate the deceased.
C. represent the devil.
D. inspire the deceased's family.

132. (p. 519) With respect to care of the dying, why does one need to be cautious about accepting a rosy view about the meaning of near-death experiences? 

A. Dying persons need attention and concern in their present circumstances.
B. Discussing near-death experiences may cause unnecessary fear in the dying patient.
C. Research proves that near-death experiences are merely hallucinations.
D. Discussing near-death experiences gives a false sense of hope to the dying.


133. (p. 495) The Hebrew word She'ol refers to 

A. the underworld of the dead.
B. hell.
C. heaven.
D. everlasting life.

134. (p. 496) The ancient Hebrews viewed the notion of human personhood as an 

A. incarnated soul.
B. existent phenomenon.
C. entity that will be reincarnated.
D. animated body.


135. (p. 506) The religious traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism both emphasize 
A. death as negative and life as positive.
B. teachings about transmigration of the soul.
C. death and life as irreconcilable opposites.
D. teachings about the absence of an afterlife.


136. (p. 506) Nirvana literally means 
A. liberation.
B. deification.
C. elimination.
D. extinction.


137. (p. 516) Psychoanalytic pioneer Oskar Pfister attributed the near-death experiences of skiers and climbers to 

A. psychological defense mechanisms.
B. the Oedipal complex.
C. separation anxiety experienced in childhood.
D. beliefs in God and eternal bliss.

138. (p. 499) In Christian beliefs, the intermediate state where an opportunity for purification is offered to eliminate any remaining personal obstacles to the full enjoyment of eternal union with God is called 

A. Hades.
B. Polis.
C. Purgatory.
D. Koan.


139. (p. 495) The ancient Hebrews praised righteous conduct because 

A. it guarantees future rewards for the individual.
B. it leads to harmony in the present life.
C. they feared eternal damnation.
D. they feared the physical pain of dying.

 140. (p. 510) What percentage of Americans say they believe in life after death? 

A. 60 percent
B. 70 percent
C. 80 percent
D. 90 percent


Chapter 15 

141. (p. 543) The shoe advertisement shown in the text is used to illustrate 
A. how death is a universal concept.
B. how death is socially acceptable.
C. death imagery in advertising design.
D. how distasteful some advertising can be.

142. (p. 545) In ancient Greece, it was considered exceptional luck to die 

A. during childhood.
B. at a very old age.
C. at the peak of creativity.
D. during a self-chosen time of solitude.


143. (p. 527-529) Which of the following advantages are gained by studying death and dying?

1. It sheds light on past experiences with loss.
2. It helps individuals dissipate feelings of guilt or blame.
3. It helps individuals avoid the severe pain of grief.
4. It opens up unexpressed and unresolved grief. 
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4

144. (p. 541) The premise of Kit Reed's story, "Golden Acres," is that 

A. people should enjoy relaxed, leisurely lives in their old age.
B. elderly people prefer to live in rural, rather than urban, environments.
C. elderly people occupy a large proportion of the population and overcrowding may lead to life-or-death decisions.
D. people should be allowed to die a natural death in familiar surroundings when they reach the end of their lifespan.


145. (p. 539) In Japan, high-rise cemeteries exist because 
A. people prefer to be buried, not cremated.
B. burial space is subject to strict zoning laws.
C. people prefer modern burial accommodations.
D. burial space in large cities is at a premium.


146. (p. 547) Which of the following are included in the concept of an appropriate death?
1. relative absence of pain
2. adequate human resources
3. resolution of conflicts
4. long life 
A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 1, 2 and 4
C. 1, 3 and 4
D. 2, 3 and 4


147. (p. 530) According to David Balk, to bridge the gap between researchers and practitioners, we need 
A. a dynamic exchange between theory and practice that makes research a useful form of gaining knowledge.
B. a step-by-step progression rather than a dynamic process.
C. to eliminate the "cultural split" between thanatologists and therapists.
D. to get practitioners to read the literature produced by the researchers.


148. (p. 533) Dan Leviton and William Wendt characterize large-scale, premature, human-caused, and unnecessary death as 

A. heroic.
B. tragic.
C. horrendous.
D. gripping.


149. (p. 532) The curricula of death education and standards for measuring outcome are 
A. still being defined.
B. impossible to define adequately.
C. well-defined, but difficult to measure.
D. well-defined and easy to measure.


150. (p. 544) An extremely casual attitude toward death may 
A. result from investigation and study.
B. result from an NDE.
C. show a deeper acceptance.
D. mask a more subtle denial.


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