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Sri Brahma-samhita
Table of Contents
Foreword
The materialistic demeanor cannot possibly stretch to the transcendental autocrat who is ever inviting the fallen conditioned souls to associate with Him through devotion or eternal serving mood. The phenomenal attractions are often found to tempt sentient beings to enjoy the variegated position which is opposed to undifferenced monism. People are so much apt to indulge in transitory speculations even when they are to educate themselves on a situation beyond their empiric area or experiencing jurisdiction. The esoteric aspect often knocks them to trace out immanence in their outward inspection of transitory and transformable things. This impulse moves them to fix the position of the immanent to an indeterminate impersonal entity, no clue of which could be discerned by moving earth and heaven through their organic senses.

The lines of this booklet will surely help such puzzled souls in their march towards the personality of the immanent lying beyond their sensuous gaze of inspection. The very first stanza of this publication will revolutionize their reserved ideas when the nomenclature of the Absolute is put before them as "Krsna." The speculative mind would show a tendency of offering some other attributive name to designate the unknown object. They will prefer to brand Him by their experience as the "creator of this universe,""the entity beyond phenomena"--far off the reference of any object of nature and void of all transformation. So they will urge that the very fountainhead should have no conceivable designation except to show a direction of the invisible, and inaudible untouchable, nonfragrant and unperceivable object. But they will not desist from contemplating on the object with their poor fund of experience. The interested enquirer will be found to hanker after the records left by erudite savants to incompatible hallucinative views of savage demonstration. In comparing the different names offered by different thoughts of mankind, a particular judge would decide in favor of some nomenclature which will suit best his limited and specific whims. The slave mentality of an individual will no doubt offer invective assertions to the rest who will be appealing to him for a revelation of his decision. To remedy this evil, the hymns of the accepted progenitor of the phenomena would do great help in taking up the question of nomenclature which is possessed of adequate power to dispel all imaginations drawn out of their experiencing the phenomena by their tentative exploitations.

The first hymn will establish the supremacy of the Absolute Truth, if His substratum is not shot by the bullets of limited time, ignorance and uncomfortable feeling, as well as by recognizing the same as an effect instead of accepting Him as the prime cause. He will be satisfied to mark that the object of their determination is the par"excellent Supreme Lord Sri Krsna who has eternally embodied Himself in His ever-presence, all-blissful, all-pervasive perfected knowledge as the very fountainhead of all prime causes of unending nonbeginning time, the supplying fosterer of all entities, viz., mundane and transcendental.

The subsequent lines will go to determine the different aspects of the Absolute, who are but emanations of the supreme fountainhead Krsna, the attractive entity of all entities. Moreover, the derivative proclamation of the nomenclature will indicate the plane of uninterrupted, unending, transcendental felicity and the nomenclature Himself is the source of the two components which go by the names of efficient and material causes. The very transcendental name "Krsna" is known as the embodiment of all the transcendental eternal rasas as well as the origin of all eclipsed conceptions of interrupted rasas found in the mentality of animated beings which are successfully depicted by litterateurs and rhetoricians for our mundane speculation.

The verses of Brahma-samhita are a full elucidation of the origination of phenomenal and noumenic conceptions. The hymns of the incarnated prime potency has dealt fully with the monotheistic speculations of different schools which are busy to give an outer cover of an esoteric concoction without any reference to the true eternal aspect of transcendental nontransformable and imperishable manifestation of the immanent. The hymns have also dealt with different partial aspects of the personality of the Absolute who is quite isolated from the conception of the enjoyers of this phenomenal world.

A very close attention and a comparative study of all prevailing thoughts and conceptions will relieve and enlighten all--be he a materialist, a downright atheist, an agnostic, a sceptic, a naturalist, a pantheist or a panantheist--busy with their knowledge of three dimensions only by their speculative exertions.

This booklet is only the fifth chapter of the Hymns of Brahma which were recorded in a hundred chapters. The Supreme Lord Sri Caitanya picked up this chapter from the temple of Adi-kesava at Tiruvattar, a village lying under the government of Travancore, for the assurance of all God-loving, and especially Krsna-loving, people in this conditioned jurisdiction. This booklet can easily be compared with another book which passes by the name of Srimad-Bhagavatam. Though it has got a reference in the pantheon of Puranas, the Bhagavatam corroborates the same idea of this Pancaratra.

The devotees should consider that these two books tend to the identical Krsna who is the fountainhead of all transcendental and mundane entities and has a manifestive exhibition of the plenary variegatedness.

Aspersions of calumniation are restricted in the limited world, whereas transcendence cannot admit such angularities being an angle of 180 degrees or void of any angular discrepancies.

The publisher is carried away to the realm of gratitude when his stores of publication are scrutinized. Thakura Bhaktivinoda has given an elucidatory purport of the conception of the most sublime fountainhead of all entities in Bengali, and one of his devout followers has rendered that into English for propagatory purpose. The purports and the translations are traced to the backgrounds of the writings of Srila Jiva Gosvami, a contemporary follower of the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya. The emotional aspirations will find fair play in perusing the texts of this brochure by one and all who have any interest in pure theistic achievements. The materialistic inspection often goes on to say that the provincial conception of theism has made the depicting of transcendental unity into diverse face quite opposed to the ethical consideration of the limited region. But we differ from such erroneous considerations when we get a prospective view of the manifested transcendentality eliminating all historicities and allegorical enterprises. All our enjoying mood should have a different direction when we take into account the transcendental entity who has obsessed all frailties and limitations of nature. So we solicit the happier mood of the scrutinizers to pay special attention to the importance of manifestive transcendence in Krsna.

It was found necessary to publish this small book for the use of English-knowing people who are interested in the acme of transcendental truths in their manifestive phases. The theme delineated in the texts of this book is quite different from the ordinary heaps of poetical mundane literature, as they are confined to our limited aspiration of senses. The book was found in the South some four centuries ago and it is again brought into light in the very same country after a long time, just like the worshiping of the Goddess Ganges by the offering of her own water.

Siddhanta Sarasvati

Shree Gaudiya Math,

Calcutta, the 1st August, 1932.


Brahma-samhita
TEXT 1
TEXT
isvarah paramah krsnah

sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah

anadir adir govindah

sarva-karana-karanam


SYNONYMS
isvarah--the controller; paramah--supreme; krsnah--Lord Krsna; sat--comprising eternal existence; cit--absolute knowledge; ananda--and absolute bliss; vigrahah--whose form; anadih--without beginning; adih--the origin; govindah--Lord Govinda; sarva-karana-karanam--the cause of all causes.
TRANSLATION
Krsna who is known as Govinda is the Supreme Godhead. He has an eternal blissful spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin and He is the prime cause of all causes.
PURPORT
Krsna is the exalted Supreme entity having His eternal name, eternal form, eternal attribution and eternal pastimes. The very name "Krsna" implies His love-attracting designation, expressing by His eternal nomenclature the acme of entity. His eternal beautiful heavenly blue-tinged body glowing with the intensity of ever-existing knowledge has a flute in both His hands. As His inconceivable spiritual energy is all-extending, still He maintains His all-charming medium size by His qualifying spiritual instrumentals. His all-accommodating supreme subjectivity is nicely manifested in His eternal form. The concentrated all-time presence, uncovered knowledge and inebriating felicity have their beauty in Him. The mundane manifestive portion of His own Self is known as all-pervading Paramatma, Isvara (Superior Lord) or Visnu (All-fostering). Hence it is evident that Krsna is sole Supreme Godhead. His unrivaled or unique spiritual body of superexcellent charm is eternally unveiled with innumerable spiritual instrumentals (senses) and unreckonable attributes keeping their signifying location properly, adjusting at the same time by His inconceivable conciliative powers. This beautiful spiritual figure is identical with Krsna and the spiritual entity of Krsna is identical with His own figure.

The very intensely blended entity of eternal presence of felicitous cognition is the charming targeted holding or transcendental icon. It follows that the conception of the indistinguishable formless magnitude (Brahman) which is an indolent, lax, presentment of cognitive bliss, is merely a penumbra of intensely blended glow of the three concomitants, viz., the blissful, the substantive and the cognitive. This transcendental manifestive icon Krsna in His original face is primordial background of magnitudinal infinite Brahman and of the all-pervasive oversoul. Krsna as truly visioned in His variegated pastimes, such as owner of transcendental cows, chief of cowherds, consort of milk-maids, ruler of the terrestrial abode Gokula and object of worship by transcendental residents of Goloka beauties, is Govinda. He is the root cause of all causes who are the predominating and predominated agents of the universe. The glance of His projected fractional portion in the sacred originating water viz., the personal oversoul or Paramatma, gives rise to a secondary potency--nature who creates this mundane universe. This oversoul's intermediate energy brings forth the individual souls analogously to the emanated rays of the sun.

This book is a treatise of Krsna; so the preamble is enacted by chanting His name in the beginning.
TEXT 2
TEXT
sahasra-patra-kamalam

gokulakhyam mahat padam

tat-karnikaram tad-dhama

tad-anantamsa-sambhavam


SYNONYMS
sahasra-patra--possessing a thousand petals; kamalam--a lotus; gokula-akhyam--known as Gokula; mahat padam--the superexcellent station; tat--of that (lotus); karnikaram--the whorl; tat--of Him (Krsna); dhama--the abode; tat--that (Gokula); ananta--of His infinitary aspect, Balarama; amsa--from a part; sambhavam--produced.
TRANSLATION
[The spiritual place of transcendental pastimes of Krsna is portrayed in the second verse.] The superexcellent station of Krsna, which is known as Gokula, has thousands of petals and a corolla like that of a lotus sprouted from a part of His infinitary aspect, the whorl of the leaves being the actual abode of Krsna.
PURPORT
Gokula, like Goloka, is not a created mundane plane--unbounded character forms the display of His unlimited potency and His propagating manifestation. Baladeva is the mainstay of that energy. The transcendental entity of Baladeva has two aspects viz., infinite spiritual manifestation and infinite accommodating space for insentient gross things. The uniquadrantal delineation of material universe will be dealt with in the proper place. The triquadrantal extensions of the transcendental infinitary field of the almighty, unlamenting, nonperishing and nonapprehending unlimited situations of halo which are fully spiritual majestic foliation. This very majestical extension portrays the manifested lofty rich feature of the vaster unlimited region or greater atmosphere which has its resplendent location wholly beyond the realm of mundane nature, on the further shore of Viraja surrounded by the halo of Brahman or indistinguishable entity. This majestical power of unlimited spirit emanates on the upper portion of the luminous sphere into the most charming Gokula or eternally existing Goloka, exceedingly beautified by the assorted display of effulgence. Some designate this region as the abode of the Supreme Narayana, or the original fountainhead. Hence Gokula, which is identical with Goloka, is the supreme plane. The same sphere shines as Goloka and Gokula respectively by its upper or transcendental and lower or mundane situation.

Sri Sanatana Gosvami has told us as follows in his Brhad-bhagavatamrta which embodies the final essence of all the books of instructions: "He displays His pastimes here in this land as He is used to do in Goloka. The difference between the two planes lies only in their locations as high and low; that is, in other words, Krsna plays exactly the same part in Goloka as He exhibits on the mundane plane of Gokula. There is practically no difference between Gokula and Goloka save that this what exists in the shape of Goloka in the upper region is the same as Gokula on the mundane plane when Krsna showed His various activity there. Sri Jiva Gosvami has also inculcated the same in the Bhagavat-sandarbha of his 'Six Treatises.' " To ascertain the plane of Goloka--Vrndavana is the eternal abode of Krsna and Goloka and Vrndavana are identically one, and though both are identical, yet Krsna's inconceivable energy has made Goloka the acme of this spiritual kingdom and Gokula of Mathura province forming a part of the mundane plane which is also a manifestation of triquadrantal vibhuti (conducting majesty). Poor human understanding cannot possibly make out how the extensive triquadrantal, which is beyond human comprehension, can be accommodated in the limited nether material universe of a uniquadrantal disclosure. Gokula is a spiritual plane, hence his condescended position in the region of material space, time, etc., is in no way restricted but unlimitedly manifested with his full boundless propriety. But conditioned souls are apt to assert a material conception in regard to Gokula by their miserable senses so as to bring him below the level of their intellect. Though the eye of an observer is impeded by a cloud when gazing at the sun and though the tiny cloud can never really cover the sun, still the clouded vision apparently observes the sun as covered by the cloud. In just the same way the conditioned souls with their obscured intelligence, senses and decisions, accept Gokula as a piece of measurable land. We can see Gokula from Goloka which is eternal. This is also a mystery. The attainment of final beatitude is the success in attaining one's eternal self. The success in identifying the true self is finally achieved when the screen of gross and subtle coils of conditioned souls is removed by the sweet will of Krsna. However, the idea of Goloka is seen to differ from Gokula till the success in unalloyed devotion is achieved. The transcendental plane of infinite spiritual manifestation having thousands of petals and corolla like those of the lotus, is Gokula, the eternal abode of Krsna.


TEXT 3
TEXT
karnikaram mahad yantram

sat-konam vajra-kilakam

sad-anga-sat-padi-sthanam

prakrtya purusena ca


premananda-mahananda-

rasenavasthitam hi yat

jyoti-rupena manuna

kama-bijena sangatam


SYNONYMS
karnikaram--the whorl; mahat--great; yantram--figure; sat-konam--a hexagon; vajra--like a diamond; kilakam--the central support; sat-anga-sat-padi--of the eighteen-syllable mantra with sixfold divisions; sthanam--the place of manifestation; prakrtya--along with the predominated aspect of the Absolute; purusena--along with the predominating aspect of the Absolute; ca--also; prema-ananda--of the bliss of love of God; maha-ananda--of the great transcendental jubilations; rasena--with the rasa (mellow); avasthitam--situated; hi--certainly; yat--which; jyotih-rupena--transcendental; manuna--with the mantra; kama-bijena--with the kama-bija (klim); sangatam--joined.
TRANSLATION
The whorl of that transcendental lotus is the realm wherein dwells Krsna. It is a hexagonal figure, the abode of the indwelling predominated and predominating aspect of the Absolute. Like a diamond the central supporting figure of self-luminous Krsna stands as the transcendental source of all potencies. The holy name consisting of eighteen transcendental letters is manifested in a hexagonal figure with sixfold divisions.
PURPORT
The transcendental pastimes of Krsna are twofold, viz., manifested and nonmanifested. The pastimes in Vrndavana visible to mortal eyes are the manifestive lila of Sri Krsna, and that which is not so visible, is nonmanifestive lila of Krsna. The nonmanifestive lila is always visible in Goloka and the same is visible to human eyes in Gokula, if Krsna so desires. In his Krsna-sandarbha Sri Jiva Gosvami Prabhu says, "Nonmanifestive pastimes are expressed in manifestive krsna-lila. and goloka-lila is the nonmanifestive pastimes of Krsna visualized from the mundane plane." This is also corroborated by Sri Rupa in his Bhagavatamrta. The progressive transcendental manifestation of Gokula is Goloka. So Goloka is the selfsame majestic manifestation of Gokula. The eternal pastimes of Sri Krsna, although not visible in Gokula, are eternally manifested in Goloka. Goloka is the transcendental majestic manifestation of Gokula. The manifestations of the nonmanifestive pastimes of Krsna with regard to the conditioned souls, are twofold, viz., (1) worship through the channel of the mantras (inaudibly recited, liberating, self-dedicatory. transcendental sounds), (2) spontaneous outflow of heart's spiritual love for Krsna. Sri Jiva Gosvami has said that worship through the mantra is possible permanently in the proper place, when confined to one pastime. This meditative manifestation of Goloka is the pastime attended with the worship of Krsna through the mantra. Again, the pastimes that are performed in different planes and in different moods, are autocratic in diverse ways; hence sva-rasiki, i.e., spontaneous, outflow of heart's spiritual love for Krsna. This sloka conveys a twofold meaning. One meaning is that in the pastime attended with worship through the mantra consisting of eighteen transcendental letters, transcendental words contained in the said mantra being differently placed make a manifestation of only one lila of Sri Krsna. As for example klim krsnaya govindaya gopijana-vallabhaya svaha--this is a hexagonal mantra consisting of six transcendental words, viz., (1) krsnaya, (2) govindaya, (3) gopijana, (4) vallabhaya, (5) sva, (6) ha. These six transcendental words, when placed juxtapositionally. indicate the mantra.

The hexagonal great transcendental machinery is in this wise. The principal seed, i.e. klim, is situated in the instrument as the central pivot. Anybody with an impression of such an instrument in his mind and concentrating his thought on such spiritual entities, can attain, like Candradhvaja, to the knowledge of the cognitive principle. The word sva indicates ksetrajna i.e., one who is conversant with one's inner self, and the word ha indicates the transcendental nature. This meaning of the mantra has also been corroborated by Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa. The general meaning is this that one who is desirous of entering into the esoteric pastimes of Krsna will have to practice His transcendental service along with the culture of the devotional knowledge relative to Him. (1) krsna-svarupa--the proper Self of Krsna; (2) krsnasya cin-maya-vraja-lila-vilasa-svarupa--the true nature of Krsna's transcendental pastimes in Vraja; (3) tat-parikara-gopijana-svarupa--the true nature of His spiritual associates in Vraja, viz., the spiritual milkmen and the milkmaids; (4) tad-vallabha--the true nature of self-surrender to Krsna in the footsteps of the spiritual milkmaids of Vraja; (5) suddha-jivasya cid-(jnana)-svarupa--the true nature of the spiritual knowledge of the unalloyed individual soul; (6) cit-prakrtir arthat krsna-seva-svabhava--the true nature of transcendental service to Krsna is this that the esoteric relation is established on the awakening of one's pure cognition. The meaning is that rasa is only the transcendental service of the central refuge Sri Krsna, as predominating aspect of the Absolute, by one's ego as the spiritual maid of the predominated moiety of the absolute integer, attended with pure devotion in the shape of one's entire self-surrender. The pastime in Goloka or in Gokula during the stage of devotional progress, is the meditative worship through the mantra, and during the stage of perfection the pastimes manifest themselves as the unrestrained transcendental jubilations. This is the real aspect of Goloka or Gokula, which will be made more explicit in due course. The meaning of the words jyoti-rupena manuna is that the transcendental meaning is expressed in the mantra by means of which, on transcendental desire of love for Krsna and the service of Krsna being added, one is established in the eternal love of Krsna. Such eternal pastimes are eternally manifested in Goloka.


TEXT 4
TEXT
tat-kinjalkam tad-amsanam

tat-patrani sriyam api


SYNONYMS
tat--of that (lotus); kinjalkam--the petals; tat-amsanam--of His (Krsna's) fragmental portions; tat--of that (lotus); patrani--the leaves; sriyam--of the gopis (headed by Srimati Radharani); api--also.
TRANSLATION
The whorl of that eternal realm Gokula is the hexagonal abode of Krsna. Its petals are the abodes of gopis who are part and parcel of Krsna to whom they are most lovingly devoted and are similar in essence. The petals shine beautifully like so many walls. The extended leaves of that lotus are the gardenlike dhama, i.e. spiritual abode of Sri Radhika, the most beloved of Krsna.
PURPORT
The transcendental Gokula is shaped like the lotus. The eternal world is like a hexagonal figure; in that the entities Sri Radha-Krsna, appearing in the form of a mantra consisting of eighteen transcendental letters, are centered. The propagating manifestations emanating from the cit potency are present there with the said entities as the center. Sri Radha-Krsna is the primary cause or the seed Himself. Gopala-tapani says, "Omkara" signifies the All-Powerful Gopala and His potency; and "klim" is the same as omkara. Hence kama-bija or the primary cause of all-love, is connotative of the entities Sri Radha-Krsna.
TEXT 5
TEXT
catur-asram tat-paritah

svetadvipakhyam adbhutam

catur-asram catur-murtes

catur-dhama catus-krtam


caturbhih purusarthais ca

caturbhir hetubhir vrtam

sulair dasabhir anaddham

urdhvadho dig-vidiksv api


astabhir nidhibhir justam

astabhih siddhibhis tatha

manu-rupais ca dasabhir

dik-palaih parito vrtam


syamair gaurais ca raktais ca

suklais ca parsadarsabhaih

sobhitam saktibhis tabhir

adbhutabhih samantatah


SYNONYMS
catuh-asram---quadrangular place; tat--that (Gokula); paritah--surrounding; sveta-dvipa--Svetadvipa (the white island); akhyam--named; adbhutam--mysterious; catuh-asram--quadrangular; catuh-murteh--of the four primary expansions (Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha); catuh-dhama--consisting of four abodes; catuh-krtam--divided into four parts; caturbhih--by the four; purusa-arthaih--human requirements; ca--and; caturbhih--by the four; hetubhih--causes, or bases of achievement; vrtam--enveloped; sulaih--with tridents; dasabhih--ten; anaddham--fixed; urdhva-adhah--upwards and downwards (the zenith and nadir); dik--(in) the directions (north, south, east, and west); vidiksu--and in the intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest); api--also; astabhih--with the eight; nidhibhih--jewels; justam--endowed; astabhih--with the eight; siddhibhih--mystic perfections (anima, laghima, prapti, prakamya, mahima, isitva, vasitva, and kamavasayita); tatha--also; manu-rupaih--in the form of mantras; ca--and; dasabhih--by ten; dik-palaih--protectors of the directions; paritah--all around; vrtam--surrounded; syamaih--blue; gauraih--yellow; ca--and; raktaih--red; ca--and; suklaih--white; ca--also; parsada-rsabhaih--with the topmost associates; sobhitam--shining; saktibhih--with potencies; tabhih--those; adbhutabhih--extraordinary; samantatah--on all sides.
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