|Site Summary: Nam Et – Phou Louey, National Protected Area
Nam Et – Phou Louey (NEPL) National Protected Area (NPA) supports a tiger population of international importance. The people living in and around the NPA rely on wildlife for their livelihood. Sadly, the way they consume wildlife is unsustainable which leads to large scale destruction throughout the entire biodiversity reserve which leads to a high potential of losing key species forever. Two main threats to the species are direct killing of tigers for trade and hunting tiger prey (Guar, Sambar Deer, Serow, Muntjacs and pigs) for food and trade (Johnson and etc 2008). These two threats are at such a high rate that it will be unsustainable for tigers, their prey species, and other species. The NEPL NPA and Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) believe we cannot allow the destruction of the species to continue at this rate as it will lead to extinction of key global species, especially Indochinese Tiger (panther tigris). In 2007 the NEPL NPA held a stakeholders meeting to gain inputs and ideas to help reduce the threats to the species. The outcome of this meeting presented three strategies: Law Enforcement, Conservation Education and Outreach, and Ecological Monitoring. Law Enforcement helps tackle the urgent problems and mitigate large scale destruction; while Conservation Eduction and Outreach engages communities to understand the trend of the threats to species and therefore help the NPA to reduce the threat; and lastly Ecological Monitoring takes the roles to measure if two interventions work by comparing the number of species year over year. You should end on how WCS and Pride will do this.
Description of Physical Site
Definition of Site
The Lao PDR is located in the heart of the Indochina peninsular, in Southeast Asia. Latitude 14 to 23 degrees north and longitude 100 to 108 degrees east; Laos is a landlocked country. It shares a 505 km border with China to the north, 435 km of border with Cambodia to the south, 2,069 km of border with Vietnam to the east, 1,835 km of border with Thailand to the west, and a 236 km border with Myanmar to the northwest. The country stretches 1,700 km from north to south, with an east-west width of over 500 km at its widest, only 140 km at the narrowest point. The Lao PDR covers a total of 236,800 square kilometers, three-quarters of which is mountainous and plateau (http://www.un.int/lao/laos_in_brief.htm).
Google Earth coordination
E 18° 30´ 33.53´´
N 101° 40´ 54.20´´ (Google Earth)
The country has three distinct regions. The North is dominated by mountains which average 1,500 meters above sea level. The highest peak in Lao is 2,800 meter (Phou Bia in Xieng Khouang province). The Phou Luang (Annamite Chain) stretches from the southeast of the Phouane Plateau down to the Cambodian border. It has three large plateau: Phouane Plateau in Xieng Khouang province, Nakai Plateau in Khammuan province, and Boloven Plateau in southern Laos. The plains region comprises of both large and small flat areas along the Mekong River. The largest of these is the Vientiane plain, on the lower reaches of the Nam Ngum Watershed. Also significant are the Savannakhet plain, on the lower reaches of the Xe Bang Fai and Xe Bang Hieng rivers, and the Champasak plain, which is on the Mekong River, stretching between the Thai and Cambodian borders. Blessed with fertile soil, these plains represent one quarter of the total irrigable lands and are the “granaries” of the country (http://www.un.int/lao/laos_in_brief.htm)
The Nam Et – Phou Louey (NEPL) National Protected Area (NPA) is the largest NPA in the country, covering approximately 600,000 hectares of mixed evergreen and deciduous forest ranging from 400m to 2257m in elevation (Johnson 2009), with over 60% of land area above 1000 m and 91% of the area is along slopes greater than a 12% gradient. Annual rainfall varies from 1400-1800mm; temperatures range from 5-30 C, while March and April are hot and dry in advance of the monsoon, followed by cool dry weather from November to February. Established in 1993, the NPA is made up of two contiguous protected areas (Nam Et and Phou Louey) that include two districts in Luang Prabang province (Viengkham and Phonxay), four districts in Houaphan province (Viengthong, Huamuang, Xamneua, and Xiengkhor), and one district in Xieng Khuang province (Phoukoud). The NPA borders Vietnam on its northern boundary (Johnson 2009). 300,000 hectares is a core zone and corridor, this is prohibited zone is forests and forestland providing habitat, living and reproduction sites for animals and a wealth of plant species, where forestry activities, forest produce gathering, including the removal of animal and plant species are strictly forbidden unless specially authorized by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry only (GoL).
, while 300,000 hectares is a village use area is forest areas or forestland adjoining or neighboring restricted areas, which the population may make limited use in wood exploitation, gathering of forestry produces and hunting. The population previously inhabiting the reserve forests may carry out different activities and use forest resources in accordance with the rules and regulations, management plans and specific rules aiming at ensuring the sustainable use of forestry resources in such areas and the efficient preservation of reserve forests (GoL). The landscape has a long history of human settlement that is characterized by patches of secondary forest, stands of bamboo and anthropogenic grasslands that are regularly burned for hunting and cattle grazing (Johnson 2009).
Infrastructure around Site
The NEPL NPA covers seven districts in three provinces: Sam Nue, Et, Hua Muang, and Viengthong Districts, Huaphanh Province; Phonexay and Viengkham Districts, Luang Prabang Province; and lastly Phou Khoud District, Xieng Khuang Province.
There are 98 villages (approximately 10,000 people) living along the perimeter of the core zone boundary (Schlemmer 2002). NEPL NPA head office is in Viengthong District, there are four simple questhouses in this town; three in Viengkham District; and 2 in Hua Muang. Only some villages have access to primarily schools, grade 1 to grade 5, only most of the villages consist primary schools between grade 1 to grade 5. There is only one lower and upper secondary school in each district near the site. There is one national road through the NPA and several dirt roads connecting from this national through villages, other provinces and Vietnam. Electricity is available 24 hours/day only during the rainy season, 2-5 hour/day during dry season.