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Flora of Barnett Ranch


Column Headings
Scientific Name: Sorting the table by scientific name allows related plants to be readily identified.
Common Name: Reference for the common names comes from Diggs, et.al., 1999. The first name listed is

most frequently used; subsequent listings reflect interesting or descriptive common names currently in use.


H: The plants growth habit: Tt=Tree, tall Ts=Tree, Short Sh=Shrub Ss=Sub-shrub V=Vine (in

some cases listed as Va = annual vine or Vp = perennial vine) Fa=Forb, Annual Fp=Forb, Perennial

Fb=Forb, Biennial Gr=Grass.
Bl: Bloom. The numbers of the months in which a plant flowers.
Color: Color. The color of the blossom. To aid in accurate sorting of this column, the predominate flower

color is listed first followed by other colors that may occur on the bloom. Due to space limitations in this

column, plants with inconspicuous flowers are listed as modest.
Comments The comments section lists remarks in the following order:

1Interesting facts and natural history of the plant. Its place of origin is also listed if it is an alien.
2Edible, medicinal or poisonous qualities of various parts of the plant.
3Usefulness of the plant for wildlife. Birds or butterflies that are attracted to the plant. Ecological impact.
4Identifying features of the plant are noted, especially differences between similar species.
5Phenological data. Dates when blooms or fruit have been noted and other seasonal specifics (first leaves emerging or sprouting dates, etc.).
6Recent changes to the scientific name are inserted here.
7Location(s) of the plant. GPS (Global Positioning System) coordinates have been used in some instances where a more accurate 'fix' on position is needed.
8Cultivation & plant maintenance through the seasons. Topics within this heading proceed in this order:

Cultivation (propagation & maintenance),

Height (and width),

Source (where the plants were collected),

Planted Out (how many and when planted),

Status (how are the plants faring?),

Notes on Future Use.
9Identification references. Species identifications were made by the author unless otherwise noted.

Many of the identifications were made on the 31st of October 2002 by a group of people assisting in a baseline study of the flora and fauna of the prospective Barnett Ranch conservation easement. The group consisted of: Rebecca Parker with the Texas Cooperative Extension Service and Michael Brooks, David Brown and Glenn Lubke from the U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service. Their contributions were combined into one list. For sake of brevity in this report, their identifications are written as "931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team."

The author of this report accepts responsibility only for those identifications made by him.

Identifications made by the author were verified using the reference material cited. The final reference used for plant identifications relies on a publication of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas. For sake of brevity in this column the reference is cited as (FNCTX, p.xxx). When this book is referred to for information other than identification, it is cited as (Diggs, Lipscomb & O’Kennon, 1999, p.xx).


10Accession made. A specimen of this species was labeled and pressed for future study or photos were taken.
X: Variable use column for sorting. A = Alien (introduced) species E = Edible - this plant has some edible part, other parts may be poisonous M = Used medicinally in the past or currently N = Endemic - native species existing only in a limited geographical area O = Species has other uses (as dye, fiber, wax, etc.) P = Poisonous X = Eradicate this species Z = unusual or rare species worthy of further scrutiny

The table below is sorted by scientific name. A list, sorted by common name accompanies this document.

Scientific Name

Common Names

H

Bl

Color

Comments / Plant Uses

X






















Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell

Gerardia, Purple;
Purple False Foxglove










431 Oct 02 - A baseline team (Brooks, Brown, Lubke & Parker) documented A. purpurea. This is a somewhat dubious identification. While A. purpurea is listed as occurring elsewhere in Texas (Jones, et. al., 1997, p.188), there are no records of it for North Central Texas (Diggs, Lipscomb & O’Kennon, 1999, p.992).

This species should be keyed out and an accession made and filed with the Botanical Research Institute of Texas if it proves to be A. purpurea.



Z

Agalinis sp.

Agalinis, Prairie
Gerardia

Fa







913 Jan 05 - Agalinus sp. noted.

(FNCTX, p.992)






Agrostis hiemalis

Winter Bentgrass

Gr







931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Ambrosia artemesiifolia

Ragweed, Common


Fa

8-11

modest

2Ambrosia artemesifolia, has edible & nutritious seeds (Plants for a Future www.pfaf.org, 2000).

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

(FNCTX, p.309)



E


Ambrosia psilostachya


Ragweed, Western

Fp

8-11

modest

4Perennial, reproducing from underground stolons.

6A. cumanensis is a misapplied name for A. psilostachya (Jones, et.al., 1997, p. 42).

931 Oct 02 - Identified as A. cumanesis by the baseline team.

(FNCTX, p.310)



M

Ambrosia trifida var. texana

Ragweed, Giant;
Bloodweed

Fa

8-11

modest

2Seeds were formerly cultivated for food.

Juice from crushed leaves is strongly astringent and useful for insect stings.



919 Jan 05 - Old stalks noted.

9(FNCTX, p.310)

E

M


Andropogon gerardii

Big Bluestem

Gr

8-11




931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Andropogon glomeratus

Bluestem, Bushy

Gr

9-11

modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Andropogon ternarius

Bluestem, Split-beard

Gr

9-11

modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team (FNCTX, p. 1239)




Aristida oligantha

Oldfield Threeawn

Gr




modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Asclepias viridis

Milkweed, Green

Fp

4

Green (pale)

931 Oct 02 - Identified as Asciepias variegate (sic) (Green Milkweed) by the baseline team.

P

Avena sativa

Oats, Cultivated

Gr

3-6

modest

1Naturalizes in our area. Native of Mediterranean region.

913 Jan 05 - from a discussion with Skip Barnett as to what he usually plants - "3-way Sudan & spring oats".

(FNCTX, p. 1244)



A

Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica

Bluestem, King Ranch

Gr

5-11

modest

1Pernicious weed from Central and East Asia.

631 Oct 02 - Identified as Andropogon ischaemum (King Ranch Bluestem) by the baseline team. This species is now Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica (Jones, et.al.,1997, p. 239),

(FNCTX, p. 1246)



A

Bothriochloa saccharoides

Bluestem, Silver

Gr




modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Bouteloua curtipendula

Sideoats Gramma

Gr




modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Bromus unioloides

Rescuegrass

Gr




modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Buchloe dactyloides

Grass, Buffalo

Gr

4-9

modest

1Dominant species in short grass prairies. Tough grass, drought resistant and low maintenance. Can withstand high traffic.

2Formerly used in the creation of sod houses.

8Cultivation: Prefers clay soil but can manage in loam. Needs full sun. Sow seed in mid to late March. Coverage is 5 pounds per 1,000 square feet.

Sod in April-September.

Mow at 2-3 inches or leave un-mown.

Height: 4-5”



931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

9(Sperry, 1991, p.186)




Cardiospermum halicacabum

Balloonvine;
Farolitos

Va

6-11

white

1Interesting inflated pods with 3 seeds in each. Each black seed has a conspicuous heart-shaped white spot which, when turned slightly resembles a yin-yang symbol.

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

(FNCTX, p.980)






Celtis laevigata

Hackberry; Common
Sugar Hackberry;

Palo Blanco



Tt

3-4

modest

1One of the most common trees in North Central Texas.

2Native Americans used hackberries extensively for food (Moerman, 1998, p.147)

6C. laevigata is currently viewed as having three varieties. Of those varieties, C. l. var. reticulata was formerly known as C. occidentalis var. reticulata or also as C. reticulata (Jones, et.al.,1997, p. 198).

719 Jan 05 - C. laevigata was the most common tree along the hedgerows.

931 Oct 02 - Identified as C. occidentalis by the baseline team.

(FNCTX, p.1038)



E


Cirsium sp. (?)

Thistle










419 Jan 05 - The winter rosettes of one species of thistle were frequently noted. The lobed leaves were beset with abundant yellow prickles along the margins. The leaves were tomentose on the upper and lower surfaces. Until it blooms, identification remains uncertain - it is likely to be one of the hairy Cirsium species or else Onopordum acanthium.

1019 Jan 05 - Five photos taken of winter rosettes (labeled variously as Cirsium hmm …).




Croton capitatus

Croton, Wooly;
Goatweed

Fa

6-10




3Plant is distasteful to cattle and increases under grazing pressure.

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

P

Croton texensis

Croton, Texas;
Skunkweed

Fa

6-10




3Plant is distasteful to cattle and increases under grazing pressure.

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team 9(FNCTX, p. 599), (Hatch & Pluhar, 1993, p.277)

P

Cynodon dactylon

Grass, Bermuda

Gr

5-10

modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

(FNCTX, p. 1259)



A

Elymus virginicus

Wild Rye, Virginia

Gr

5-8

modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Eragrostis spectabilis

Lovegrass, Purple

Gr




modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Erigeron strigosus

Fleabane;
Daisy Fleabane

Fx




white rays

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team (FNCTX, p. 350)




Eryngium leavenworthii

Eryngo, Leavenworth's

Fa

7-9

purple

919 Jan 05 - Conspicuous stalks with faded flower heads.

(FNCTX, p. 252)






Euphorbia sp.

Spurge










931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Galium sp.

Cleavers;
Bedstraw

Fx

4-5

white

2Dried fruit sold as a coffee substitute. Often recognized as the best coffee substitute in North America.

Fragrant foliage was used to stuff mattresses in the past.



919 Jan 05 - Identified in 75 acre tract.

(FNCTX, p. 962)



E

O


Geranium sp.

Crane’s-bill;
Wild Geranium

Fa

4

white

2Rhizomes have been used as a strong astringent tea for sore throats.

4Leaf blades are usually nearly as wide as long. Contrast this with its lookalike relatives, the Erodium’s, whose leaves are generally longer than wide.

919 Jan 05 - Identified in 75 acre tract.

(FNCTX, p.730)



M

Gleditsia triacanthos

Honey-locust;
Honeyshuck

Tt

4

yellowsh

modest



2Dried seeds are delicious and nutritious- cook them like dried beans.

At this writing (2003), the author eats large quantities of the green seeds raw every summer. They are delicious.



919 Jan 05 - Groves of young trees.

(FNCTX, p.660)



E

Gutierrezia dracunculoides

Broomweed, Common;
Snakeweed

Fa

7-11

yellow

2Useful as a strong breathmint; a mentholating cough syrup; for brooms; torches and fire starters. A tea can be made that is drunk for stomachache. A quart or more of strong tea can be added to a bath to ease joint pain and arthritis (Moore, 1979, p. 74).

May cause eye inflammation or contact dermatitis in some humans.



6Formerly classified as Xanthocephalum spp., which became Amphiachyris spp., and is now Gutierrezia spp.

913 Jan 05 - in the 100 acre tract.

(FNCTX, p.363)



MO

P


Helenium amarum

Bitterweed










931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Helianthus annuus

Sunflower, Common

Fa

5-10

yellow

919 Jan 05 - Common in the 75 acre tract.

E

Iva annua

Marsh-elder;
Sump Weed

Fa

9-11

modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

E

Iva angustifolia

Sump Weed, Narrow-leaf

Fa

9-11

modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Lamium amplexicaule

Henbit

Fa

11-2

reddish-purple

919 Jan 05 - Identified in 75 acre tract.

(FNCTX, p.759)



E

Leptoloma cognatum

Witchgrass, Fall

Gr

(5-)

8-10


modest

6Synonymous with Digitaria cognata

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

(FNCTX, p. 1263)






Lippia lanceolata

Frogfruit, Lance-leaf;
Fogfruit

Fp

5-10

white (to rose purple

6Formerly Phyla lanceolata.

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

(FNCTX, p. 1054)






Lolium perenne

Ryegrass

Gr

3-6

modest

1Eurasian grass used in Texas as erosion control or to make lawns green in winter.

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

(FNCTX, p. 1282)



A

Monarda citriodora

Horsemint, Lemon

Fa

5-7

white w/ purple dots (corolla)

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

(FNCTX, p. 765)



E

M


Monarda sp.

Horsemint

Fa







919 Jan 05 - Noted dead stems with conspicuous seed heads in 75 acre tract.

E

M


Nassella leucotricha

Grass, Spear

Gr

4

modest

6Formerly Stipa leucotricha.

931 Oct 02 - Identified as Stipa leucotricha by baseline team




Opuntia engelmannii var. lindheimeri

Cactus, Texas Prickly Pear

Sh

5-6

yellow

6O. lindheimeri is now recognized as O. engelmannii var lindheimeri (Jones, et.al., 1997, p.89)

931 Oct 02 - Identified as O. lindheimeri (Texas Prickly Pear ) by baseline team

(FNCTX, p. 490)



E

Panicum obtusum

Vine Mesquite

Gr




modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Panicum oligosanthes var scribnerianum

Rosette Grass, Scribner's

Gr




modest

6Dicanthelium oligosanthes is now Panicum oligosanthes var. scribnerianum (Jones, et.al., 1997, p.253), (FNCTX, p. 1300)

931 Oct 02 - Identified as Dicanthelium oligosanthes (Scribner's Dichanthelium) by baseline team




Panicum virgatum

Switchgrass

Gr




modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Paspalum dilatatum

DallisGrass

Gr

5-11

modest

1Native of South America.

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

A

Paspalum plicatulum (?)

Paspalum, Brownseed

Gr

3-11

modest

6A nomenclatural disjunction accompanies this identification: "Brownseed Paspalum" is the common name for P. plicatulum (FNCTX, p. 1306; Gould, 1978, p.185), Whereas P. texanum is an old name for what is now P. hydrophilum (Jones, et.al. 1997, p.255). Although both species are listed for Texas, only P. plicatulum is listed for North Central Texas.

931 Oct 02 - Identified as Paspalum texanum (Brownseed Paspalum) by the baseline team.




Phoradendron tomentosum

Mistletoe

Fp

10-3

yellow

3hemiparasitic (parasitic, but also partially autotrophic) on a variety of tree species including Celtis, Ulmus and Maclura (Diggs, Lipscomb & O’Kennon, 1999, p.1064).

913 Jan 05 - On Hedgerow Celtis.

P

Prosopis glandulosa

Mesquite, Honey

Ts

4-5

(-7)


white

913 Jan 05.

E

Prunus angustifolia

Plum, Chickasaw

Sh




white

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

E

Rumex crispus

Dock, Curly


Fp

4-5




1Native of Europe.

2The leaves of some species are good in salads or as a cooked green. High in oxalic acid.

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team (FNCTX, p.905)

A

E


Salix nigra

Willow, Black

Tt

3-4

modest

1The most common native willow, widespread throughout Texas.

2Natives of the old and new worlds chewed the stems for the pain-killing relief provided by the salicylic acid found in the bark. Humans have created a semisynthetic version of this chemical known as acetylsalicylic acid – aspirin (see Milam, Aug 95, p.2).

2According to the late Dr. Geoffrey Stanford (Personal communication, 12 Feb 98), if you cut a willow branch into small sections and let it soak in cold water for a long time, then use the water to immerse branch cuttings in, the cuttings will root. A rooting hormone is present.

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

MO

Salvia azurea var. grandiflora

Sage, Blue

Fp

6-10

Blue

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Schizachyrium scoparium var.frequens

Bluestem, Little

Gr

8-12

modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Setaria italica

Foxtail Millet

Gr




modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Sherardia arvense

Sherardia

Fa

3-5

pink,

lavender


913 Jan 05- From the distinctive whorls of leaves around the prostrate stem.

(FNCTX, p. 970)



A

Sideroxylon lanuginosa

Chittamwood;
Gum Elastic;

Bumelia


Ts

5-7

white

2The fruit is considered by some authorities as edible, while others say it causes stomach disturbances and dizzyness. Personal experience of the author - excellent taste with no ill effects unless a quantity greater than 30 is eaten. Upon consumption of more than 30, the tongue becomes very painful and the pain continues for several hours, the pain then subsides but reoccurs when anything is consumed. This food prompted pain persists for several hours fading gradually to nothing.

2The high quality rubber was once used for medical instruments because it survived repeated sterilization by heat.

6Formerly Bumelia lanuginosa.

919 Jan 05 - Identified in 75 acre tract.

(FNCTX, p. 982)



E?

O


Silphium albiflorum

Rosinweed, White;
White Compassplant

Fp

5-7

white

1S. Albiflorum is endemic to Texas.

4There are two species of Silphium in our area with deeply pinnatifid leaves - S. albiflorum and S. laciniatum. Distinguishing between the two is simple - one has white ray flowers and the other has yellow. Identification of this Silphium was made during the winter. It is based on the following characteristics: Mature plant only 37 cm. tall; achenes were puberulent; the v-shaped notch at the apex of the achene was 3.5 mm. deep.

913 Jan 05 - Accession from location Bc6a on the 75 acre tract.

(FNCTX, p. 404)



N

Smilax bona-nox

Greenbrier, Fiddle-leaf;
Stretchberry

V

4-5

green, yellow-green

2The rootstocks were pounded and a reddish starch was recovered as a precipitant in water, then used for soup, bread or jelly (Havard, 1898, p.113).

An elastic covering surrounds the hard seed and was used by pioneers as chewing gum.



5Mid-August - stretchberries are very stretchy, even though seed inside is still white and immature. Fruit ripens sometime in September.

919 Jan 05 - Identified in 75 acre tract.

(FNCTX, p.1346)



E

Z


Solanum carolinense

Horse-nettle, Carolina

Fp

5-10

white

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

P

Solanum dimidiatum

Horse-nettle, Western;

Fp

5-7

(-10)


white

919 Jan 05 - In the 75 acre tract. Identification based on 3cm diameter fruit.

(FNCTX, p. 1028)



P

Solanum elaeagnifolium

Horse-nettle;
Silver-Leaf Nightshade;

Trompillo



Fp

5-6 (-10)

blue-purple

2Fruits are especially poisonous when green. They become round and yellow when ripe, resembling tomatoes, but are still generally considered poisonous.

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team 9(FNCTX, p.1028, photo, p.106)

P

Solanum rostratum

Buffalo-bur;
Mala Mujer

Fa

6-12

yellow

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Solidago sp.

Goldenrod

Fx




yellow

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team (FNCTX, p. 410)




Sorghastrum nutans

Indiangrass, Yellow

Gr




modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii

Sudan grass

'3-way Sudan'



Gr




modest

3Introduced species planted as a crop.

913 Jan 05 - from a discussion with Skip Barnett as to what he usually plants - "3-way Sudan & spring oats".

(FNCTX, p. 1324)



A

Sorghum halapense

Grass, Johnson

Gr

5-11

modest

1Invasive grass native to the Mediterranean region.

4Johnson grass is easily mistaken with the native and very similar Purpletop (Tridens flavus). They are often found growing together.

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team 9(FNCTX, p. 1324)

A

Sonchus sp.

Sow Thistle

Fa

3-6

yellow

1Both species are native to Eurasia.

4While S. arvensis is listed as occurring in Texas (Jones, et.al., 1997, p. 66), it is not thought to occur in North Central Texas (Diggs, Lipscomb & O'Kennon, 1999, p. 416). Our listed species are S. oleraceus and S. asper.

931 Oct 02 - Identified as S. arvensis by baseline team.

A

Sporobolus compositus

Dropseed

Gr




modest

6Formerly Sporobolus asper.

931 Oct 02 Identified as S. asper by the baseline team.

(FNCTX, p.1327)






Taraxacum officinale

Dandelion

Fp

12-6

(-11)


yellow

1Native of Eurasia, imported from Europe by the first settlers to grow in their gardens.

2All parts are edible and very nutritious. 919 Jan 05 - In 75 acre tract.

(FNCTX, p. 418)



A

E


Torilis arvensis

Beggars-lice;
Hedge Parsley

Fa

5-6

white

1Highly aggressive non-native species from the Mediterranean region. Attractive winter parsley-like foliage gives way in summer to a multitude of small, gray burs that stick to clothing. 919 Jan 05 - Identified in 75 acre tract.

(FNCTX, p.262)



P

X


Toxicodendron pubescens

Poison-ivy

Sh

V


4-5

green

modest


4T. pubescens does not climb; often with broad, blunt apex (sometimes narrowed) on leaflets; leaflets not sharply toothed; fruits pubescent

919 Jan 05 - Identified in 75 acre tract.

(FNCTX, p. 236)






Tridens albescens

Tridens, White

Gr




modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team (FNCTX, p. 1330)




Tridens sp.

Tridens

Gr




modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team




Trifolium repens

Clover, White;
Shamrock

Fp

4-5

(-)


white

1Native of Europe.

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

(FNCTX, p. 706)



A

Triticum aestivum

Wheat

Gr

4-5

modest

1Wheat & barley are considered to be the first two plants to be cultivated. Originated in the Near East, ranging from the Mediterranean to Iran.

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

(FNCTX, p. 1332)



A

Verbesina sp.

Crown Beard;
Frostweed

Fx







931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team (FNCTX, p.427)




Xanthium strumarium

Cocklebur;
Abrojo

Fa

6

modest

931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team

(FNCTX, p.4)






Zanthoxylum clava-herculis

Hercules Club;
Prickly Ash;

Tickletongue



Ts

4-5

yellow-green

913 Jan 05 - Along hedgerows.

(FNCTX, p.974).



E

M

Note: Species identifications were made by the author unless otherwise noted.

Many of the identifications were made on the 31st of October 2002 by a group of people assisting in a baseline study of the flora and fauna of the prospective Barnett Ranch Conservation Easement. The group consisted of: Rebecca Parker with the Texas Cooperative Extension Service and Michael Brooks, David Brown and Glenn Lubke from the U.S. Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service. Their contributions were combined into one list. For sake of brevity in this report, their identifications are written as "931 Oct 02 - Identified by baseline team."


The author of this report accepts responsibility only for those identifications made by him.

  1   2   3


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