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Sargent’s Snakebush (Hemiandra rutilans) recovery plan


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WA INTERIM RECOVERY PLAN NO. 273

Sargent’s Snakebush
(Hemiandra rutilans)
RECOVERY PLAN


Department of Environment and Conservation



Kensington





















FOREWORD
Interim Recovery Plans (IRPs) are developed within the framework laid down in the Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM) Policy Statements Nos. 44 and 50. Note: the Department of CALM formally became the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) in July 2006. DEC will continue to adhere to these Policy Statements until they are revised and reissued.
IRPs outline the recovery actions that are required to urgently address those threatening processes most affecting the ongoing survival of threatened taxa or ecological communities, and begin the recovery process.
DEC is committed to ensuring that threatened taxa are conserved through the preparation and implementation of Recovery Plans (RPs) or IRPs and by ensuring that conservation action commences as soon as possible and, in the case of Critically Endangered (CR) taxa, always within one year of endorsement of that rank by the Minister.
This IRP will operate from April 2008 to March 2013 but will remain in force until withdrawn or replaced. It is intended that, if the species is still ranked CR, this IRP will be reviewed after five years and the need for further recovery actions assessed.
This IRP was approved by the Director of Nature Conservation on 30 April 2008. The allocation of staff time and provision of funds identified in this IRP is dependent on budgetary and other constraints affecting DEC, as well as the need to address other priorities.
This plan was written and endorsed as an IRP in Western Australia, and it is also the National Recovery Plan for this Ecological Community as listed under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.
Information in this IRP was accurate as at April 2008.
IRP PREPARATION
This IRP was prepared by Mia Morley1, Andrew Brown2, Diana Papenfus3 and Felicity Bunny4
1 Project Officer, Species and Communities Branch, DEC, Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA 6983.

2 Coordinator Threatened Flora, Species and Communities Branch, DEC, Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA 6983.

3 Former Project Officer, Species and Communities Branch, DEC, Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA 6983.

4 Former Project Officer, Species and Communities Branch, DEC, Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA 6983.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The following people have provided assistance and advice in the preparation of this Interim Recovery Plan:
Joel Collins Conservation Officer (Flora), DEC’s Avon-Mortlock District

Barry Conn Research Scientist, National Herbarium of NSW

Andrew Crawford Technical Officer, Threatened Flora Seed Centre. DEC

Kingsley Dixon Science Director, Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority

Bob Elkins Horticulturalist, Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority

Sue Patrick Former Senior Research Scientist, DEC Science Division

Barbara Rye Senior Research Scientist, DEC

Amanda Shade Horticulturalist, Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority



Claire Welbon Former Conservation Officer, DEC, Merredin (now Yilgarn)
Thanks also to the staff of the W.A. Herbarium for providing access to Herbarium databases and specimen information. Thanks also to DEC’s Species and Communities Branch and the private land holders who provided information on altered contact details, new land divisions and assistance in locating new and old populations in the field.

Cover photograph by Robert Boase


CITATION
This Recovery Plan should be cited as:
Department of Environment and Conservation (2008) Sargent’s Snakebush (Hemiandra rutilans) Interim Recovery Plan No. 273, Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australia.

SUMMARY





Scientific Name:

Hemiandra rutilans

Common Name:

Sargent’s Snakebush

Family:

Lamiaceae

Flowering Period:

October - December

DEC Region:

Wheatbelt

DEC District:

Avon-Mortlock

Shire:

Dowerin

Recovery Team:

Avon-Mortlock District Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team (AMDTFCRT)

NRM Region:

Avon








Illustrations and/or further information: Atkins, K. (2008). Declared Rare and Priority Flora List for Western Australia. Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australia. Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (eds) (1998) Western Australia’s Threatened Flora. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia; Department of Environment and Conservation (2008) Western Australian Herbarium FloraBase 2 – Information on the Western Australian Flora (Accessed 2008) Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australia. http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/science/; Sargent O.H. (1927) Notes on the Genus Hemiandra R. Br. Journal of Botany 65, 174-176.
Current status: Hemiandra rutilans was declared as Rare Flora under the Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 in 1994 and is currently ranked as Critically Endangered (CR) under World Conservation Union (IUCN 1994) Red List criteria A1ac; B1+2a-e; D due to there being a single population in which the only known individual has now died. Threats include lack of habitat, lack of disturbance, herbicide drift and weed invasion. The species is listed as Endangered under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act).
Description: Hemiandra rutilans is a small, low growing shrub (to 10cm high) with attractive, dark red flowers. Leaves are generally 21 by 2mm in size, linear and rough to touch. Stamens are hidden from view, but long anthers extend from the flowers. Plants flower from October to December.
Habitat requirements: The species was originally collected at Sand Springs, south-west of York. The most recent confirmed location was south of Dowerin where it grew in low Banksia prionotes woodland with Eremaea pauciflora, Nuytsia floribunda and Verticordia densiflora. The soil type is deep grey sand.

Habitat critical to the survival of Hemiandra rutilans, and important populations: Given that Hemiandra rutilans is listed as Endangered (EPBC Act), it is considered that all known habitat for wild and future translocated populations is critical to the survival of the species, and that all wild and translocated populations are important populations. Habitat critical to the survival of Hrutilans includes the area of occupancy of the known population and additional occurrences of similar habitat nearby that may contain undiscovered populations of the species or be suitable for future translocations.
Benefits to other species or ecological communities: Recovery actions implemented to improve the quality or security of the habitat of Hemiandra rutilans will also improve the status of remnant vegetation in which it is found.
International obligations: This plan is fully consistent with the aims and recommendations of the Convention on Biological Diversity, ratified by Australia in June 1993, and will assist in implementing Australia’s responsibilities under that Convention. Hemiandra rutilans is not listed under any specific international treaty however, and this IRP does not affect Australia’s obligations under any other international agreements.

Indigenous Consultation: According to the Department of Indigenous Affairs Aboriginal Heritage Sites Register, no known Aboriginal sites of significance occur within or in close proximity to the known population of Hemiandra rutilans. The involvement of the Indigenous community is currently being sought to determine if there are any indigenous issues identified in the Plan. If no role is identified for indigenous communities in the recovery of this species, opportunities may exist through cultural interpretation and awareness of the species.




The advice of the South West Aboriginal Land and Sea Council (SWALSC) and Department of Indigenous Affairs is being sought to assist in the identification of potential indigenous management responsibilities for land occupied by threatened species, or groups with a cultural connection to land that is important for the species' conservation.




Continued liaison between DEC and the indigenous community will identify areas in which collaboration will assist implementation of recovery actions.



Social and economic impact: The implementation of this recovery plan is unlikely to cause significant adverse social or economic impacts. However, as the known population was located on private property, habitat retention for possible future plant recruitment from seed stored in the soil may potentially affect farming activities. Actions will involve liaison and cooperation between stakeholders with regard to this area.

Affected interests: Stakeholders potentially affected by the implementation of this plan include the owner of the private property on which the last known population was located. Recovery actions refer to continued liaison between stakeholders.

Evaluation of the plan’s performance: DEC, in conjunction with the Avon-Mortlock District Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team (AMDTFCRT), will evaluate the performance of this IRP. In addition to annual reporting on progress and evaluation against the criteria for success and failure, the plan will be reviewed following four years of implementation.


Completed recovery actions


  1. The habitat of the Dowerin population has been fenced to exclude rabbits and sheep.

  2. The Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority (BGPA) have 50 propagates in vitro and two seeds in cryostorage.



Ongoing and future recovery actions





  1. After the single extant Hemiandra rutilans plant died, BGPA staff treated the site with smoke in an attempt to stimulate germination of any seed that was stored in the soil. This treatment has to date been unsuccessful.

  2. The Avon-Mortlock Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team (AMTFCRT) is overseeing the implementation of this IRP and will include information on progress in their annual reports to DEC’s Corporate Executive and funding bodies.

  3. Staff from DEC’s Avon-Mortlock District office are monitoring the site.


IRP objective: The objective of this IRP is to abate identified threats and maintain or enhance viable in situ populations to ensure the long-term preservation of the species in the wild.
Recovery criteria
Criteria for success: Recruitment from seed stored in the soil occurs within the area of the previously known plant over the five year term of the plan or new populations are found.

Criteria for failure: No recruitment from seed stored in the soil occurs within the area of the previously known plant over the five year term of the plan or no new populations are found.
Recovery actions


  1. Coordinate recovery actions

  1. Monitor habitat of last known plant

  1. Map habitat critical to the survival of Hemiandra rutilans

  1. Develop and implement fire and soil disturbance trials

  2. Develop a fire management strategy

  1. Obtain taxonomic, biological and ecological information

  1. Promote awareness

  2. Liaise with relevant land managers and Indigenous groups

  1. Conduct further surveys

  1. Review the plan and need for further recovery actions

1. BACKGROUND

History
The type collection of Hemiandra rutilans was made from Sand Springs near York in 1924. In 1994, a Hemiandra species was located near the site of Sargent’s collection but, following examination by Dr Barry Conn, at the Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney, it was identified as H. hancocksiana. The only recent collection of the species (1 plant) was located at Dowerin in 1992. As this plant died in 1994, Hemiandra rutilans is not known from any extant plants and may be extinct in the wild.
As species in the genus Hemiandra are particularly variable and Sargent’s original description of Hemiandra rutilans was not detailed, it has since been confused with related taxa. This is highlighted in Blackall and Grieve’s key where H. rutilans is confused with H. coccinea (Blackall and Grieve 1981). The name H. rutilans has also been applied to a species in the Three Springs area, now named H. hancocksiana.

In March 1994 staff from the Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority (BGPA) visited the Dowerin site and took material for tissue culture and grafting. Two seeds were also retrieved. BGPA has 50 propagates in vitro culture and the two seeds in cryostorage.



Hemiandra rutilans is closely related to H. coccinea, with differing opinions as to whether it is a separate species or variant of H. coccinea. Barbara Rye (pers comm) considered that H. rutilans may be a synonym of H. coccinea, or possibly a variety or subspecies, as it differs from H. coccinea only in having ‘short patent hairs on both surfaces of the leaf whereas typical H. coccinea has the upper surface glabrous or less hairy than the undersurface, with some long hairs on the veins of undersurface’ (B. Rye pers. comm.). Barry Conn believes the two taxa are sufficiently distinct to be recognised as separate species (B. Conn pers. comm.). On the basis of this difference of opinion, Barbara Rye considered that it was best to retain the species as distinct at this time.

Description



Hemiandra rutilans is a low spreading shrub to 10 cm high and 60 cm across with attractive, tubular, dark red (usually) flowers to two cm long. The dark green leaves are generally 21 mm long by 2 mm wide, ribbed, concave and linear, and rough to the touch. Brown et al. (1998) state that “The 6 mm long calyx has 2 lobes. The corolla is blood red and slightly pubescent; with a trumpet shaped tube, up to 21 mm long, and a scarcely bi-lobed limb. The lobes are more or less equal and much shorter than the tube.” The anthers extend from the flowers and are attached towards the base of the floral tube. Plants flower from October to December.

Distribution and habitat


Hemiandra rutilans is historically known from two areas only - the type collection at Sand Springs south-west of York (exact location unknown) and, until its death in 1994, a single plant in remnant vegetation on private property near Dowerin, estimated to be 65 to 85 kilometres from the original collection. The Dowerin location comprised low Banksia prionotes woodland with Eremaea pauciflora, Nuytsia floribunda and Verticordia densiflora. The soil type is deep grey sand. Very little information on the habitat of the York population is available.
Summary of population land vesting, purpose and management


Pop. No. & Location

DEC District

Shire

Vesting

Purpose

Management

1 Dowerin

Avon-Mortlock

Dowerin

Freehold

Private Property

Landholders

2 Sand Springs, near York*







Unknown

Unknown

Unknown

*Type locality, not relocated. Populations in bold text are considered to be Important Populations.
Biology and ecology
Very little is known about the ecology of the species. However, as species in the genus Hemiandra are mainly disturbance opportunists, it is likely that H. rutilans may regenerate from seed stored in the soil.
Threats
Hemiandra rutilans was declared as Rare Flora under the Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 in 1994, and is currently ranked as Critically Endangered (CR) under World Conservation Union (IUCN 1994) Red List criteria A1ac; B1+2a-e; D due to there being a single population in which the only known individual has now died. Potential threats include lack of habitat, lack of disturbance, herbicide drift and weed invasion. The species is listed as Endangered under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act).


  • Habitat clearance is believed to be the major cause of the rarity of the species. Agricultural development in the Central Western Wheatbelt began early last century.




  • Lack of disturbance. Hemiandra species are known disturbance opportunists and the area where the last known plant of the species was located has not had disturbance for some time.

The intent of this plan is to provide actions that will deal with immediate threats to Hemiandra rutilans. Threats such as drought and climate change may impact on the species over time however actions taken to prevent such threats are beyond the scope of this plan.


Summary of population information and possible threats


Pop. No. & Location

Year No. plants

Condition

Possible threats

1 South of Dowerin

1982 1

1994 0


2008 0

No extant plants


Habitat clearing, lack of disturbance.

2 Sand Springs, near York*

n/a

Unknown

Unknown

Populations in bold text are considered to be Important Populations. *Type locality, not relocated
Guide for decision-makers
The above table provides details of current and future possible threats. Proposed actions in the immediate vicinity of populations or within the defined habitat critical to the survival of Hemiandra rutilans require assessment for the potential for a significant level of threat.
Habitat critical to the survival of Hemiandra rutilans, and important populations
Given that Hemiandra rutilans is ranked as Endangered (EPBC Act), it is considered that all known habitat for wild and future translocated populations is critical to the survival of the species, and that all wild and translocated populations are important populations. Habitat critical to the survival of H. rutilans includes the area of occupancy of the known population, areas of similar habitat surrounding and linking the population (these providing potential habitat for population expansion and pollinators), additional occurrences of similar habitat that may contain undiscovered populations of the species or be suitable for future translocations, and the local catchment for the surface and/or groundwater that maintains the habitat of the species.
Benefits to other species or ecological communities
Recovery actions implemented to improve the quality or security of the habitat of Hemiandra rutilans is likely to also improve the status of remnant vegetation in which it is located.
International obligations
This plan is fully consistent with the aims and recommendations of the Convention on Biological Diversity, ratified by Australia in June 1993, and will assist in implementing Australia’s responsibilities under that Convention. Hemiandra rutilans is not listed under any specific international treaty and this IRP does not affect Australia’s obligations under any other international agreements.


Indigenous Consultation

According to the Department of Indigenous Affairs Aboriginal Heritage Sites Register, no known Aboriginal sites of significance occur within or in close proximity to the previously known population of Hemiandra rutilans. The involvement of the Indigenous community is currently being sought to determine if there are any indigenous issues identified in the Plan. If no role is identified for indigenous communities in the recovery of this species, opportunities may exist through cultural interpretation and awareness of the species.




The advice of the South West Aboriginal Land and Sea Council (SWALSC) and Department of Indigenous Affairs is being sought to assist in the identification of potential indigenous management responsibilities for land occupied by threatened species, or groups with a cultural connection to land that is important for the species' conservation.




Continued liaison between DEC and the indigenous community will identify areas in which collaboration will assist implementation of recovery actions.


Social and economic impact
The implementation of this recovery plan is unlikely to cause significant adverse social or economic impacts. However, as the known population was located on private property, habitat retention for possible future plant recruitment from seed that may be stored in the soil may potentially affect farming activities. Actions will involve liaison and cooperation between stakeholders with regard to this area.

Affected interests

Stakeholders potentially affected by the implementation of this plan include the owner of the private property on which the last known population was located. Recovery actions refer to continued liaison between stakeholders.




Evaluation of the plan’s performance

DEC, in conjunction with the Avon-Mortlock District Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team (AMDTFCRT), will evaluate the performance of this IRP. In addition to annual reporting on progress and evaluation against the criteria for success and failure, the plan will be reviewed within five years of implementation.



2. RECOVERY OBJECTIVE AND CRITERIA

Objectives


The objective of this IRP is to abate identified threats and maintain or enhance viable in situ populations to ensure the long-term preservation of the species in the wild.
Criteria for success: Recruitment from seed stored in the soil occurs within the area of the previously known plant over the five year term of the plan or new populations are found.

Criteria for failure: No recruitment from seed stored in the soil occurs within the area of the previously known plant over the five year term of the plan or no new populations are found.

3. RECOVERY ACTIONS




Existing recovery actions

The habitat of the Dowerin location has been fenced to exclude rabbits and sheep.

BGPA has 50 propagates in vitro culture and two seeds in cryostorage.

Ongoing and future recovery actions

Soon after the single extant plant of Hemiandra rutilans died in 1994, BGPA staff treated the site with smoke in an attempt to stimulate germination of any seed stored in the soil. This treatment has to date been unsuccessful.


The Avon-Mortlock Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team (AMTFCRT) is overseeing the implementation of this IRP and will include information on progress in their annual reports to DEC’s Corporate Executive and funding bodies.
Staff from DEC’s Avon-Mortlock District office are monitoring the site.
Where populations occur on lands other than those managed by DEC, permission has been or will be sought from appropriate land managers prior to actions being undertaken. The following recovery actions are generally in order of descending priority, influenced by their timing over the life of the plan. However, this should not constrain addressing any of the actions if funding is available and other opportunities arise.

1. Coordinate recovery actions

The AMDTFCRT are coordinating recovery actions for Hemiandra rutilans and other DRF in their district and will include information on recovery progress in their annual report to DEC’s Corporate Executive and funding bodies.


Action: Coordinate recovery actions

Responsibility: DEC (Avon-Mortlock District) through the AMDTFCRT

Cost: $1,600 per year

2. Map habitat critical to the survival of Hemiandra rutilans
Although habitat critical is mentioned in Section 1, the areas described have not yet been accurately mapped and this will be addressed under this action. If new populations are located, habitat critical to their survival will also be determined and mapped.
Action: Map habitat critical to the survival of Hemiandra rutilans

Responsibility: DEC (Avon-Mortlock District) through the AMDTFCRT

Cost: $2,000 in the first year

3. Conduct further surveys
Hemiandra rutilans will be searched for during the species’ flowering period (October to December) with assistance from local naturalist clubs and volunteers. Surveys will also be done on an opportunistic basis while surveying for other threatened flora, particularly on private property. Volunteers from the local community, wildflower societies and naturalist clubs may be involved in surveys, supervised by DEC staff.
Action: Conduct further surveys

Responsibility: DEC (Avon-Mortlock District) through the AMTFCRT

Cost: $1,400 per year
4. Obtain taxonomic, biological and ecological information
As very little is currently known about the biology or ecology of the species and its relationship with the related Hemiandra coccinea, research would provide information on:


  1. Its relationship with Hemiandra coccinea.

  2. The size and viability of the seed bank, and seed germination requirements

  3. The role of disturbance in regeneration

  4. The species sensitivity to fire and response to different fire regimes


Action: Obtain taxonomic, biological and ecological information

Responsibility: DEC (Science Division, Avon-Mortlock District) through the AMTFCRT

Cost: $16,500 in years 2 and 3, $31,500 in year 4

5. Monitor habitat of last known plant
Annual monitoring of threatening processes and possible seedlings of this species will be conducted and Rare Flora Report Forms completed.

Action: Monitor habitat of last known plant

Responsibility: DEC (Avon-Mortlock District) through the AMTFCRT

Cost: $1,200 per year
6. Develop and implement fire and soil disturbance trials
DEC’s Avon-Mortlock District will, in consultation with the private landowner, develop and implement fire or soil disturbance trials to stimulate the germination of seed that may be stored in the soil. The results of trials will be monitored and, if successful, a larger scale operation undertaken.
Action: Develop and implement fire and soil disturbance trials

Responsibility: DEC (Science Division, Avon-Mortlock District) through the AMTFCRT

Cost: $3,400 in years 1, 3 and 5
7. Develop and implement a fire management strategy
Fire should be prevented from occurring within the area of the last known population until a research burn has determined the role of fire in regeneration of the species. A fire management strategy will be developed for the species if it is located, including recommendations on fire frequency, intensity and season.
Action: Develop a fire management strategy

Responsibility: DEC (Avon-Mortlock District) through the AMDTFCRT

Cost: $2,500 in year 1 and $900 in subsequent years
8. Promote awareness
A publicity campaign will increase local community awareness of this species. Publicity may be in the form of exposure in the local print or electronic media, or production of a poster for display in venues of high exposure. Formal links with local naturalist groups and interested individuals should also be encouraged.
Action: Promote Awareness

Responsibility: DEC (Avon-Mortlock District, Species and Communities Branch (SCB), Strategic Development and Corporate Affairs) through the AMDTFCRT

Cost: $2,000 in the first year, $1,000 in years 3 and 5

9. Liaise with relevant land managers and Indigenous groups

Staff from DEC’s Avon-Mortlock District will continue to liaise with the private land owners. Input and involvement will be sought from Indigenous groups that may have an active interest in the habitat of the species.


Action: Liaise with relevant land managers and Indigenous groups

Responsibility: DEC (Avon-Mortlock District) through the AMDTFCRT

Cost: $800 per year

10. Review the plan and assess the need for further recovery actions


If Hemiandra rutilans is still ranked Critically Endangered at the end of the five-year term of this IRP, the need for further recovery actions, or a review of this IRP will be assessed and a revised plan prepared if necessary.
Action: Review the plan and assess the need for further recovery actions

Responsibility: DEC (Avon-Mortlock District, SCB) through the AMDTFCRT

Cost: $1,500 in the fifth year

Summary of recovery actions





Recovery Actions

Priority

Responsibility

Completion date

Coordinate recovery actions

High

AMTFCRT

Ongoing

Map habitat critical to the survival of Hemiandra rutilans

High

DEC (Avon-Mortlock District) through the AMTFCRT

Year 1

Conduct further surveys

High

DEC (Avon-Mortlock District) through the AMTFCRT

Ongoing

Obtain biological and ecological information

High

DEC (Science Division, Avon-Mortlock District) through the AMTFCRT

Year 4

Monitor habitat of last known plant

High

DEC (Avon-Mortlock District) through the AMTFCRT

Ongoing

Develop and implement fire and soil disturbance trials

High

DEC (Science Division, Avon-Mortlock District) through the AMTFCRT

Year 5

Develop and implement a fire management strategy

High

DEC (Avon-Mortlock District) through the AMTFCRT

Develop by year 1 with implementation ongoing

Promote awareness

Moderate

DEC (Avon-Mortlock District, SCB, Strategic Development and Corporate Affairs Division) through the AMTFCRT

Ongoing

Liaise with the land manager and Indigenous groups

Moderate

DEC (Avon-Mortlock District) through the AMTFCRT

Ongoing

Review the plan and assess the need for further recovery actions

Moderate

DEC (Avon-Mortlock District, SCB) through the AMTFCRT

Year 5

4. TERM OF PLAN
Western Australia
This IRP will operate from April 2008 to March 2013 but will remain in force until withdrawn or replaced. If the species is still listed as declared rare flora after five years, the need for further recovery actions will be determined.
Commonwealth
In accordance with the provisions of the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) this adopted recovery plan will remain in force until revoked.
The recovery plan must be reviewed at intervals of not longer than five years.
5. REFERENCES
Atkins, K. (2008). Declared Rare and Priority Flora List for Western Australia. Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australia.

Blackall, W.E. and Grieve, B.J. (1981) How to Know Western Australian Wildflowers. A Key to the Flora of the Extratropical Regions of Western Australia, Part IIIB. University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands.

Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (Eds) (1998) Western Australia’s Threatened Flora. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.

Department of Conservation and Land Management (1994) Policy Statement No. 50 Setting Priorities for the Conservation of Western Australia’s Threatened Flora and Fauna. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.

Department of Conservation and Land Management (1992) Policy Statement No. 44 Wildlife Management Programs. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.

Department of Environment and Conservation (2007) Definitions, categories and criteria for Threatened and Priority Ecological Communities. Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australia (Accessed 2007). http://www.naturebase.net/content/view/273/1208/

Department of Environment and Conservation (2008) Western Australian Herbarium FloraBase 2 – Information on the Western Australian Flora (Accessed 2008) Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australia. http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/science/

Sargent, O.H. (1927) Notes on the Genus Hemiandra R. Br. Journal of Botany 65, 174-176.

World Conservation Union (1994) IUCN Red List Categories: Version 2.3. Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
6. TAXONOMIC DESCRIPTION
Excerpt from: Sargent, O.H. (1927) Notes on the Genus Hemiandra R. Br. Journal of Botany 65, 174-176.
Latin translation

Erect shrublet, stems, leaves and calyces subscabrous-canescent, or leaves occasionally glabrous. Leaves linear or linear-oblanceolate. Calyx 2-lipped. Corolla blood-red, subdensely pubescent; tube trumpet shaped, limb scarcely 2-lipped, lobes more or less equal, much shorter than the tube, entire. Stamens inserted in the lower quarter of the tube. Anthers long exserted.


Stem to 10 cm (or higher?). Leaves 21 mm long, 2 mm wide; calyx tube 6 mm, corolla tube 21 mm long.
SUMMARY OF RECOVERY ACTIONS AND COSTS





Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Recovery Action

DEC

Other

Ext.

DEC

Other

Ext.

DEC

Other

Ext.

DEC

Other

Ext.

DEC

Other

Ext.

















































Coordinate recovery actions

1200

300

100

1200

300

100

1200

300

100

1200

300

100

1200

300

100

Map habitat critical to the survival of Hemiandra rutilans

500




1500





































Conduct further surveys

800




600

800




600

800




600

800




600

800




600

Obtain biological and ecological information










3500

2500

10500

3500

2500

10500

7500




24000










Monitor habitat of last known plant

400




800

400




800

400




800

400




800

400




800

Develop and implement fire and soil disturbance trials

2000

900

500










2000

900

500










2000

900

500

Develop and implement a fire management strategy

1000

1000

500

700




200

700




200

700




200

700




200

Promote awareness

1000




1000










500




500










500




500

Liaise with relevant land managers and Indigenous groups

500




300

500




300

500




300

500




300

500




300

Review the plan and assess the need for further recovery actions





































1500






















































Total

7400

1200

5300

7100

2800

12500

9600

3700

13500

11100

300

26000

7600

1200

3000
















































Yearly Total


13,900

22,400

26,800

37,400

11,800

















































Ext. = External funding (funding to be sought), Other = in-kind contribution and BGPA.

Total DEC: $42,800

Total Other: $9,200

Total External Funding: $60,300

Total Costs: $112,300





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