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Report of two families Liliaceae


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Aristortle University of Thessaloniki

Department of Botany

European Class 2000

Schneider Christine


April 2000


Report of two families




Liliaceae





Lilium martagon



Crocus




1. Taxonomy

Division: Angiosperm

Class: Liliopside (Monocots)

Subclass: Monocotyledonae

Superorder: Liliiforae

Order:Liliaceae (Juss)



2. Description
Habit
The Liliaceae are perennial plants. They are “normal” or switch plants and are occasionally phyllodineous.
Leaves
The leaves are well developed or much reduced. The lilies are perennial with a basal aggregation of leaves, or with neither basal nor terminal aggregation of leaves. The leaves are nearly always alternate, opposite or whorled.

Inflorescence, flowers

The flowers are solitary, or aggregated in ‘inflorescences’, in racemes, or in umbels, or in panicles. Inflorescences can be scapiflorous, or not scapiflorous, terminal, or axillary. The flowers are bracteate or ebracteate, ebracteolate (usually), or bracteolate (occasionally). They are small to large; regular (nearly always), or somewhat irregular. The flower formula is P3+3 A3+3 G3. The petals and the 3 stamens are arranged in 2 circles. The perigone tube is absent.





All photographs are from http://www.wco.com










Tulipa tarda

Photographs are from http://www.wisc.edu.






Fruit
The fruit is a non-fleshy capsule. The seeds are endospermic, wingless and without a starch. The endosperm is oily and in 2 species achorophyllous.

Photograph from http://www.wco.com


Stem

Most of the time the secondary thickening is absent. The xylem is without vessels.


3. Geography

It grows in Holarctic, Paleotropical, and Neotropical Northern hemisphere, centred on southwest and Himalayan Asia to China.


4. Representative genera and species

Colchicum autumnale

Anthericum ramosum

Lilum martagon

Allium ursinum

Convallaria majalis




Convallaria majalis



Lilium martagon




Photographs from http://www.wisc.edu

5. Poem

O sweetest, fairest lily!


My brother wears thee not one half so well
As when thou grewest thyself
(‘Cymbeline’, iv., 2)
6. Literature used
AICHELE, Dietmar, SCHWEGLER, Heinz-Werner, Der Kosmos-Pflanzenfuehrer, Augsburg, 1996

MANDL, Lothar, Organismus und Umwelt, Wien, 1991



ag.arizona.edu/classes//rnr202/taxtour/menu.html

biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/angio/index.htm

www.inform.umd.edu/PBIO/pb250/

www.wco.com

www.wisc.com

Aristortle University of Thessaloniki

Department of Botany

European Class 2000


Schneider Christine

April 2000

Iridaceae



1.Taxonomy
Division: Angiosperm

Class: Liliopside (Monocots)

Subclass: Monocotyledonae

Superorder: Liliiforae

Order: Iridaceae

2. Description
Habit and leaf form
They can be herbs or shrubs (rarely). Iridaceae are perennial, with a basal aggregation of leaves, or with neither basal nor terminal aggregations of leaves. They are rhizomatous, or cormous, or a few are bulbaceous. The leaves are evergreen, or deciduous, alternate. The lamina is entire, linear, or lanceolate, parallel-veined and without cross-venules. Leaves are with a persistent basal meristem, and basipetal development.
Inflorescence, flowers

Flowers are solitary, or aggregated in ‘inflorescences’, in panicles, in cymes, in spikes, in umbels, and in corymbs. The terminal inflorescence unit (when more than one-flowered) is cymose, or racemose. The flowers are bracteate; small to large; regular to very irregular. The perigone tube is present (long or short). The flower formula is CA3 CO3 A3 G(3). Perianth of ‘tepals’: 6 are joined; 2 are whorled. The androecium is exclusively of fertile stamens. The 2-3 stamens are reduced in number relative to the adjacent perianth to isomerous with the perianth; alterniperianthial (opposite the outer perianth lobes). Anthers are usually separated from one another. Pollen grains are usually aperturate or nonaperturate. The 3 ovaries are very often locular. The ‘odd’ carpel is anterioran. The embryo sac is development Polygonum-type. The polar nuclei are fusing prior to fertilization. Antipodal cells formed; 3; not proliferating; persistent. Synergids pear-shaped, or hooked (sometimes with filiform apparatus). The endosperm formation is nuclear.



both photographs are from http://www.wco.com





photographs from: http://www.wisc.edu





Crocus neapolitanus




Fruit

The fruits are non-fleshy and form a capsule.



Photograph from http://www.wco.com

3. Geography

Holarctic, Paleotropical, Neotropical, Cape, and Australian. It can be found in temperate to tropical areas. It is almost cosmopolitan, but lacking from frigid zones and northern Eurasia.



4. Representative genera and species
1800 species and 92 genera: Ainea, Alophia, Anomatheca, Aristea, Babiana, Barnardiella, Belamcanda, Bobartia, Calydorea, Cardenanthus, Chasmanthe, Cipura, Cobana, Crocosmia, Crocus, Cypella, Devia, Dierama, Dietes, Diplarrhena, Duthiastrum, Eleutherine, Ennealophus, Ferraria, Fosteria, Freesia, Galaxia, Geissorhiza, Gelasine, Geosiris, Gladiolus, Gynandriris, Herbertia, Hermodactylus, Hesperantha, Hesperoxiphion, Hexaglottis, Homeria, Homoglossum, Iris, Isophysis, Ixia, Kelissa, Klattia, Lapeirousia, Lethia, Libertia, Mastigostyla, Melasphaerula, Micranthus, Moraea, Nemastylis, Neomarica, Nivenia, Olsynium, Onira, Orthrosanthus, Pardanthopsis, Patersonia, Pillansia, Pseudotrimezia, Radinosiphon, Rheome, Roggeveldia, Romulea, Savannosiphon, Schizostylis, Sessilanthera, Sisyrinchium, Solenomelus, Sparaxis, Sympa, Syringodea, Tapeina, Thereianthus, Tigridia, Trimezia, Tritonia, Tritoniopsis, Tucma, Watsonia, Wisenia, Zygotritonia.




Sisyrinchium



Iris virini

photographs are from: http://www.wisc.edu





5. Economic use
Numerous ornament0s, plus the orris root (from Iris rhizomes) and saffron dye (from Crocus stigmas).
6. Poem
And with its reeds the wandering stream
Reflects the flag-flower’s golden beam
(Charlotte Smith, quoted by Ann Pratt, ‘Wild Flowers’ (1857) - Iris pseud-acorus)

7. Literature used
AICHELE, Dietmar, SCHWEGLER, Heinz-Werner, Der Kosmos-Pflanzenfuehrer, Augsburg, 1996

MANDL, Lothar, Organismus und Umwelt, Wien, 1991



ag.arizona.edu/classes//rnr202/taxtour/menu.html

biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/angio/index.htm

www.inform.umd.edu/PBIO/pb250/

www.wco.com

www.wisc.com


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