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Reference Guideline for Aronia Juice/Purée Introduction


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Reference Guideline for Aronia Juice/Purée



Introduction

This reference guideline seeks to define various acceptability parameters for aronia juice / purée.

The parameters are listed under 2 sections:

Section A contains various parameters that characterise the absolute quality requirements. They are considered as being mandatory for all aronia juice/ puree marketed in the EU.

Section B contains various criteria relevant to the evaluation of identity and authenticity. It also contains some less critical quality criteria. It is crucial for users of this guideline to understand that a valid conclusion, regarding the authenticity of a particular sample, can only be reached providing the whole analytical picture has been subject to expert interpretation. If some parameters do not fall within the values quoted in section B this does not mean, automatically, that the sample is adulterated

The values and comments in this guideline are based on pure, authentic juices, without permitted ingredients and / or additives, exhibiting the characteristic colour and flavour of the named fruit.

Aronia juice/purée is obtained, by definition of the EC Directive, from mature and sound fruit by mechanical processes and is treated by physical means.

It is understood that:



  • aronia juice/purée is made from Aronia melanocarpa

  • aronia juice can be cloudy or clear.

  • for the fruit juice industry mainly aronia juice is processed. The indicated values are therefore referred to in litres.

  • only the treatments and processes regulated by the Fruit Juice Directive (see annex 8.1) are permitted.

  • for the reconstitution of concentrated fruit juices water should have the appropriate characteristics. The definition of "appropriate" is given in Chapter 5.3.a under the specific comments.

  • the use of additives is regulated by horizontal European additives directives. The details are listed in annex 8.6

Various types and origins of fruit of industrial significance were subject to comprehensive analysis to provide the values found in this guideline. To help in their interpretation please read carefully the associated Commentary Notes.
A. Absolute quality requirements













Commentary Notes














1. Industrially agreed upon requirements










Direct Juice













Rel. density 20/20

1.0568

min.




Sgf 10 to 16 av = 12.5 n = 10

Ara 16 to 22 av = 19.5 n = 32

Ernt 12.9 to 18.6 av = 14.4 n = 12

Diet 14.2 to 18.2



SvZ 12.1 to 24.4 av = 17.8 n = 613 sd 1.85

Corresponding Brix

14.0

min.




Juice From Concentrate













Rel. density 

1.0654

min







Corresponding Brix

16.0

min







2. Hygiene requirements













Volatile acids as acetic acid

g/l

max.







Ethanol

g/l

max.







D/L Lactic acid

g/l

max.







3. Environmental requirements













Arsenic and heavy metals













Arsenic (As)

mg/kg

max.

0.1




Lead (Pb)

mg/kg

max.

0.05

Mercury (Hg)

mg/kg

max.

0.01

Cadmium (Cd)

mg/kg

max.

0.05

Tin (Sn)

mg/kg

max.

100

For canned product only.

4. Compositional requirements
















mg/l

min.










mg/l

max.








B. Further criteria for evaluation of identity and authenticity

The B-criteria are not a set of standards. If the result of any analysis falls outside the given parameters, the conclusion should not automatically be drawn that the product is questionable. For a balanced interpretation it is necessary to consult the General Comments and the Detailed Comments.



















Commentary Notes



















Titratable acidity at pH 8.1

mval

98

-

184

The values indicated correspond to 6.3 – 11.8 g/kg, calculated as anhydrous citric acid pH 8.1

Citric acid

g/l




-

1 g/l max

Aronia is subject to a large natural variation in citric acid.

D-Isocitric acid

mg/l

40

-

90




Citric acid: D-Isocitric acid










30 max




L-malic acid

g/l




-

15 max

Aronia is subject to a large natural variation in malic acid.

D-malic acid 

mg/l




n.d.




D-malic acid is not present in the fruit. Small amounts detected can be due to analytical methodology.

Quinic acid

g/l

2

-

4




Ash

g/l

5

-

7




Sodium (Na)

mg/l







30 max




Potassium  (K) 

mg/l

1900

-

3500




Magnesium (Mg)

mg/l

100

-

200




Calcium (Ca)

mg/l

100

-

200




Phosphate

mg/l

600

-

700




Formol number ml 0.1 M NaOH/100ml




6

-

12




Glucose


g/l


26

-


50




Fructose

g/l

25



50




Glucose : fructose




1.0




1.1




Sucrose

g/l




-

n.d.




Sorbitol

mg/l

40




100




Anthocyanin profile













4 principle cyanidine 3-O-glycosides

The major anthocyanins in aronia juice are: Cyanidin-3-galactoside and Cyanidin-3-arabinoside.



Copper

mg/kg

max




5.0

These parameters indicate typical values which are usually not exceeded but are no legal limits.

Zinc

mg/kg

max




5.0

Iron

mg/kg

max




5.0

Tin

mg/kg

max




1.0


* The range expressed in mmol/l is obtained from the range in mg/l by calculation

Remark : n.p. = not present




Draft Reference Guide Aronia September 2012



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