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PROTOCOL LEVEL 1: GENERAL DATA

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Name of heritage asset

The Monastery of Sant’Antonio in Polesine

Type of heritage asset

Immovable Cultural Heritage , Sacral Architectural Heritage, Object

Global coordinates (X, Y, Z)

N 44˚49’38.99’’ ; E 11˚37’ 26.36’’; Elevation 11 m

Country

Italia

Date of record

08. 10. 2012

Characteristic photography






SUMMARY

Historic background

The Monastery of Sant’Antonio in Polesine was founded in the thirteenth century by Blessed Beatrice d'Este on an island that had formed on the banks of the Po, annexed to the city only in 1451 after the addition of Borso d'Este. Already around the year one thousand, some Augustinian monks had settled on the island of Sant’Antonio. The original complex and the area were bought by Azzo Novello in 1257. The following year, Beatrice d'Este and her companions, young nobles, who wanted to join the St. Benedict’s order, moved to the complex, in need of works and extensions. The new church was probably designed on the basis of a plan with three naves with gabled roof and without narthex, then transformed into simple hall. The "magister Tigrinus" is indicated by some sources as the architect of the church. He has altered the surviving Gothic church and built a new the monastery area, with the use of materials taken largely from the church of Santo Stefano della Rotta.

The second phase of the works began more than half of the thirteenth century, the abbey church is assuming the current planimetric dimensions. In the middle of the fourteenth century a ditch, that cut from north to south of the island, was occluded. There is a convent building used for crafts was implanted. Between the end of the fourteenth century and the beginning of the fifteenth the narthex and a northern building surrounded by gardens were built.

In the fifteenth century the complex was enriched and embellished. In 1413 the bishop of Ferrara, Pietro Boiardi, consecrated the church. The chapels behind the apse of the church were built. In 1433, the nuns had cells above the loggia on the ground floor; in the same year, according to the Benedictine rule, an internal stairway linked directly dormitory and church. Because the rush of devotees was incompatible with the life of seclusion and the rules of the Council of Trent had to be met, in 1473 the religious building was divided into two churches, one for the faithful, the other for nuns, as well as still is today.

In the early sixteenth century, a new building was made in the west garden. In 1503 the ceiling of the choir was transformed: the repeated arches with vaulted and corbels hid the fourteenth beamed ceiling. Between the end of the sixteenth and the first half of the seventeenth century a second cloister was built to accommodate the growing number of boarders.

In the seventeenth century baroque decorations were made and the ceiling of the exterior church was repainted. These are the last works before the church was closed and the convent was down to penitentiary, due to the arrival of the French army in 1796. In the nineteenth century the new altar of SS. Sacramento was arranged and the chapel of the Blessed Beatrice was made. In 1910, the area of the novices was used as a barracks and the City of Ferrara bought the complex and entrusted to the custody of the nuns. The balconies above the choir were removed in 1947. In 1960 works began inside the church: the door of the choir was closed and the floor was raised to accommodate the plants. In the 90s of the twentieth century the supervision initiated the recovery of the second cloister.


Brief description

The Monastery of Sant'Antonio in Polesine stands on an ancient river island, annexed to the city in 1451. The insular character of the area is still very legible in the urban topography.

When accessing from Vicolo del Gambone in the atrium in front of the church you can see the oldest part of the complex (13th century), constituted by the building of worship and the first cloister. This is a porch (quadriportico) on which the dormitories of the nuns look upstairs and the living areas (dining hall, choir, chapter house, office of abbess) on the ground floor. The second cloister, restored in the 90's of the 20th century after being used as a barracks, was built between the 16th and the 17th century.

The church building is divided, since 1473, in two parts: the external church, public, and internal church (the oldest part) of nuns of the cloister.

The church open to the faithful is accessed from the atrium by means of a narthex with round arches of the 15th century. The interior, maybe originally divided into three naves, is presented as a single hall, transformed and renovated in baroque style in the 17th century. The ceiling was painted in the 18th century by Francesco Ferrari: it is a representation of architecture and perspective broken, surrounded by portraits of the Saints of St. Benedict's Order.

The internal church, the so-called nuns' choir, has benches of walnut along the walls, made in the 15th century, and the arched ceiling with vaults and corbels hides the original timber ceiling. On the bottom, three chapels start with pointed arches. These chapels, covered with frescoed cross vaults, on the walls have frescoes of the 14th century of the Giotto's school. The central chapel has frescoes dating back to different schools and periods. The great Annunciation, by Domenico Panetti fully occupies the central vault of the chapel, while from ceiling of 16th century, painted by the students of Filippi's school with grotesque that run on vault, a large crucifix of dark wood, that dates back to 1400, hangs. The two side vaults are decorated to simulate colored curtains like a fan, probably functional to hide paintings from a previous era. In the chapel on right there is a staircase that connects directly the choir and dormitory, as required by the Benedictine rule.

From the central chapel leads to a new apse built in the 15th century, that consists of three rooms: the central one having paintings of the 18th century on the walls, a lacunar ceiling of the 17th century, a wooden altarpiece of the 17th century on the back wall and a fresco, representing the "Flagellation of Christ" of 1519 attributed to Ercole De Roberti, on the wall adjacent to the central chapel; although two contiguous rooms complete this part of the building, both covered with wattle vaults and, in the right one, a "Compianto" of polychrome ceramic of the 15th century is preserved.







Illustrations




Location of monastery




Plan of monastery







The church





Frescoes in the internal church - Chapels







1.0 Names and References

No.

Data Subfield

Received Information

Standards

1.1

Type of heritage asset

Immovable Cultural Heritage belonging to ecclesiastical organization civilly recognized, which present artistic and historical interest.

Code of Cultural and Landscape Heritage

(D.Lgs., 42/2004, dated 22.01.2004)

(http://www.beniculturali.it/mibac/export/MiBAC/index.html - accessed 08.10.2012)


1.2

Name of heritage asset

The Monastery of Sant’Antonio in Polesine



1.3

Unique reference numbers of asset





1.4

Dates compilation





1.4.1

Date of initial compilation

08.10.2012



1.4.2

Date of last update

10.10.2012



1.5

Record originator

University of Ferrara, Faculty of Architecture



1.6

Cross-reference to related asset record





1.6.1

Related record reference number

AA.VV., 1994 Ferrara nel medioevo: topografia storica e archeologia urbana.

[OPAC ID: IT\CCU\BVE\0067968]



Reference is cited according to OPAC SBN

(http://www.sbn.it/opacsbn/opac/iccu/free.jsp- - accessed 08.12.2012)



1.6.2

Qualifier of Relationship

Topographic description of the site and historical phases of development of city of Ferrara.



1.6.3

Originator of Reference

City of Ferrara, Cultural Institutions Department, Civic Museum of Ancient Art, EFER, Special Agency of Chamber of Commerce



1.6.1

Related record reference number

Brisighella C., XVIII sec., Descrizione delle pitture e sculture della città di Ferrara.

[OPAC ID: IT\CCU\VEA\0018992]





1.6.2

Qualifier of Relationship

Art historical description



1.6.3

Originator of Reference

Carlo Brisighella





1.6.1

Related record reference number

Guarnieri C., 2006, S. Antonio in Polesine: archeologia e storia di un monastero estense.

[OPAC ID: IT\CCU\UFE\0735296]






1.6.2

Qualifier of Relationship

Art historical description and archeological informations




1.6.3

Originator of Reference

Chiara Guarnieri





1.6.1

Related record reference number

Caselli L., 1992, Il monastero di S. Antonio in Polesine: un approccio storico artistico in età medievale.

[OPAC ID: IT\CCU\FER\0035664]






1.6.2

Qualifier of Relationship

Art historical descriptions




1.6.3

Originator of Reference

Letizia Caselli





1.6.1

Related record reference number

Guarini M.A., 1621, Compendio historico dell’origine, accrescimento e prerogative delle chiese, e luoghi pii della città, e diocesi di Ferrara.

[OPAC ID: IT\CCU\CFI\0281025]






1.6.2

Qualifier of Relationship

Art historical descriptions




1.6.3

Originator of Reference

Guarini Marc’Antonio




1.6.1

Related record reference number

Mostardi F., 1978, Il monastero di S. Antonio in Polesine: cenni storici.

[OPAC ID: IT\SBL\CFI\0318697]






1.6.2

Qualifier of Relationship

Art historical descriptions




1.6.3

Originator of Reference

Faustino Mostardi




1.7

Cross-reference to records of fixtures, fittings collections and artifacts









1.7.1

Reference number

Brisighella C., XVIII sec., Descrizione delle pitture e sculture della città di Ferrara.

[OPAC ID: IT\CCU\VEA\0018992]






1.7.2

Originator of Reference

Art historical description




1.7.1

Reference number

Carlo Brisighella





1.8

Cross-reference to documentations







1.8.1

Reference number

http://www.beniculturali.it/mibac/export/MiBAC/index.html - accessed 08.10.2012




1.8.2

Type of documentation

Code of Cultural and Landscape Heritage




1.8.3

Originator of Reference

Ministry of Culture




1.8.1

Reference number

http://www.agenziaterritorio.it/ - accessed 08.10.2012

Agency of Territory of Ferrara’s district






1.8.2

Type of documentation

Cadastral data




1.8.3

Originator of Reference

Agency of Territory




1.9

Cross-reference to archaeological records/events







1.9.1

Reference number

Guarnieri C., 2006, S. Antonio in Polesine: archeologia e storia di un monastero estense.

[OPAC ID: IT\CCU\UFE\0735296]






1.9.2

Originator of Reference

Chiara Guarnieri. This is the result of archeological investigations in 1997.




1.9.3

Start date of recording event

1997




1.9.4

End date of recording event

/




1.10

Cross-references to environmental records

/






2.0 Location

No.

Data Subfield

Received Information

Standards

2.1

Administrative location

Owner of the monastery is the City of Ferrara, after the purchase in 1910. The monastery is still guarded by the Benedictine nuns.




2.1.1

Country

Italia




2.1.2

Geo-political unit

Emilia-Romagna region




2.1.3

Administrative subdivision

city of Ferrara




2.2

Address







2.2.1

Postal name

Church is located in the south part of Ferrara, on the ancient island of Sant’Antonio in Polesine.




2.2.2

Name of street/road

Vicolo del Gambone




2.2.3

Number in the street/road

/




2.2.4

Locality

/




2.2.5

Town/city

Ferrara




2.2.6

Postal or location code

44121




2.3

Cartographic reference







2.3.1

Spatial referencing system

Geographic Information System (GIS)




2.3.2

Global coordinates (X, Y, Z)

44˚49’38.99’’ N

11˚37’ 26.36’’E

Elevation 11 m







2.4

Cadastral reference/land unit

Cadastral reference: sheet: 389

Land unit: D



According to the Agency of Territory of Ministry of Economy of Italian Republic. (http://www.agenziaterritorio.it/ - accessed 08.10.2012)




3.0 Functional Type

No.

Data Subfield

Received Information

Standards

3.1

Generic

Church




3.2

Usage

From its inception on it is used for religious purposes.

In 1796 the church was closed and the convent was down to penitentiary.

In 1910, the area of the novices was used as a barracks.

Currently the oldest part of the monastery is home to the nuns and the church was reopened in 1924.






3.1.1

Dates of usage

From thirteenth century till today: religious function.

18th and 19th century: the complex was used as a military functions.

20th century: part of the monastery was used as a barracks.







4.0 Dating

No.

Data Subfield

Received Information

Standards

4.1

Date range

Date of construction: 13th century/17th century

Date of consecration: 1413

Date of frescoes creation: 13th century/16th century

Date of transformations and restorations: 17th century; 1947, 1960, 90s of 20th century.






4.2

Method

Art historical, historical interpretation, critical sources analysis






5.0 Structure

No.

Data Subfield

Received Information

Standards

5.1

Type of structure

B1 churches

The church is divided into two parts: the external public one and the internal nuns’ choir with three chapels and an external apse. There is in also a bell tower.



According to FP7 project Perpetuate methodology

http://www.perpetuate.eu/ - accessed 08.10.2012

(Table 2)



5.2

Structural material

Brick walls




5.2.1

Foundation

Brick walls build on a sandy soil




5.2.2

Walls/pillars

Brick walls




5.2.3

Interstorey structure

Timber structure




5.2.4

Roof

Timber structure




5.3

Finishing material







5.3.1

Foundation

No survey




5.3.2

Walls/pillars

Interior: Lime plaster, frescoes, paintings

Façade: not plastered






5.3.3

Interstorey structure

Lime plaster, coffered ceiling, wattle plastered vaults




5.3.4

Roof

Timber structure covered with brick tiles






6.0 Current Physical Condition

No.

Data Subfield

Received Information

Standards

6.1

Date of assessment

16.10.2009




6.2

Assessment originator

Prof. Arch. Rita Fabbri, University of Ferrara, Faculty of Architecture




6.2

General condition

Regularly maintained

Construction: well preserved, moisture, age deterioration, salts, mechanical damages

Frescoes: well preserved, age deterioration, moisture, salts

Bell tower: well preserved, no visible damages

Exterior: well preserved, moisture, mechanical damages





6.3

Condition of critical elements

/






7.0 Protection / Legal Status

No.

Data Subfield

Received Information

Standards

7.1

Type of protection

Monument of artistic and historical importance

Code of Cultural and Landscape Heritage (D. Lgs. 42/2004, dated 22.01.2004)

7.2

Grade of protection

Permanent proclamation





7.3

Date of protection grant







7.4

Reference number









8.0 Major Risks

No.

Data Subfield

Received Information

Standards

8.1

Long-term environmental impact

A2

A4

A1



According to the EU-CHIC methodology (Table 1)

8.2

Sudden environmental impact

B4

B2


According to the EU-CHIC methodology (Table 1)

8.3

Anthropogenic impact

C2

C3

C1



According to the EU-CHIC methodology (Table 1)



Data acquisition methods

No.

Data Subfield

Method

1.0

Names and References

Documentary research

2.0

Location

Documentary research

3.0

Functional type

Documentary research

Archival research



4.0

Dating

Art historical interpretation

Critical source analysis

Archival research


5.0

Structure

In-situ visual inspection

6.0

Current physical condition

In-situ visual inspection

Photographic report

Visual inspection

Structural assessment



Diagnostic/Measured survey

7.0

Protection / Legal status

Documentary research

8.0

Major Risks

Analysis of earthquake risk of urban organism of Ferrara

Table 1. The list of major risks that influence heritage asset

A&B: Environmental Risks

C: Anthropogenic – Social Risks

A: Long term influence

B: Sudden events

A1: Bio-attack

B1: Wind storm

C1: Economic activities

A2: Climate conditions fluctuations

B2: Fire

C2: Accidental events

A3: Aeolic impact

B3: Flood

C3: Improper decisions

A4: Water (Ground, Atmospheric)

B4: Earthquake

C4: Vandalisms

A5: Solar radiation

B5: Landslide

C5: Riots

A6: Particle matter& aerosols

B6: Avalanche

C6: Wars

A7: Long term loading

B7: Tsunami




A8: Geological conditions
(including local particularities)

B8: Volcano




Table 2. Typology of heritage assets developed within FP7 project PERPETUATE

Class

Description

Assets

A

Architectonic assets with two main bearing structural elements: vertical walls and horizontal floors. If they are properly connected, mutual cooperation between the structural elements allows the building to behave as a single box.

A1 palaces,
A2 castles,
A3 religious houses,
A4 caravansaries,
A5 madrasas

B

Architectonic assets, which are characterized, by wide spaces without intermediate floors and few inner walls. An independent damage mechanism occurs in the different parts of the building, and it is often possible to recognize specific structural macro elements (façade, triumphal arch, apse, dome, transept,).

B1 churches,
B2 mosques,
B3 temples,
B4 baptisteries,
B5 mausoleum,
B6 hammam
B7 theatres

C

Architectonic assets in which the vertical dimension prevails on the other ones. Since usually, these buildings are characterized by significant slenderness, their seismic response may be assumed as a global flexural behavior.

C1 towers,
C2 bell towers,
C3 minarets,
C4 lighthouses,
C5 chimneys

D

Architectonic assets in which the main structural element is an arch or a vault. Both single arches and much more complex constructions based on this basic structural element are included.

D1 triumphal arches,
D2 aqueducts,
D3 bridges,
D4 cloisters

E

Massive constructions in which the wide thickness of walls, if compared to other dimensions, doesn’t allow the idealization as plane structural element. Local failure occurs as detachment of external leaf.

E1 fortresses,
E2 ramparts

F

Single, isolated architectonic assets, which does not delimit an interior space.

F1 columns,
F2 trilithons,
F3 obelisks,
F4 ruins

G

Historical centers composed of ordinary buildings’ aggregates, which assume the relevance of cultural heritage asset as whole in the urban context. Seismic response considers the interaction among adjacent buildings.





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