Ana səhifə

Principles of Biology, January 24& 26, 2007 Phylum Echinodermata & Phylum Chordata


Yüklə 16.7 Kb.
tarix10.05.2016
ölçüsü16.7 Kb.
Principles of Biology, January 24& 26, 2007

Phylum Echinodermata & Phylum Chordata (introduction)


  1. Phylum Echinodermata

    1. Position in evolutionary scheme

      1. Deuterostomes

    2. The four key echinoderm features

      1. Calcareous internal skeleton

        1. Basic skeletal elements

        2. Why is it considered “internal”?

      2. Water vascular system

        1. Derived from coelom

        2. System of canals

        3. Not a circulatory system (no nutrient exchange)

        4. Functions

          1. Control of tube feet (described)

          2. Gas exchange (across tube foot surface)

      3. Symmetry

        1. Larvae

        2. Adults

      4. Mutable connective tissue

    3. Body plan: Other aspects

      1. Perivisceral coelom

        1. Organization/functions (i.e. what systems occur here)

        2. Gas exchange involving perivisceral coelom

      2. Digestive system

      3. Nervous system

      4. NOTE: No circulatory system

      5. NOTE: No excretory system or ability to regulate water/ion balance.

  2. Major classes

      1. Class Asteroidea

        1. Feeding

        2. Respiration (know the two different pathways of oxygen into the perivisceral coelom!)

        3. Protection

      2. Class Echinoidea

        1. Feeding

        2. Respiration (know the two different pathways of oxygen into the perivisceral coelom!)

        3. Protection

      3. Class Holothuroidea (introduced only)

      4. Class Ophiuroidea (introduced only)

      5. Class Crinoidea (introduced only)

  3. Phylum Chordata: general

    1. Position in evolutionary scheme

      1. Deuterostomes

    2. The four key features of all Phylum Chordata members

      1. Notochord

      2. Dorsal, Hollow Nerve Cord

      3. Pharyngeal Gill Slits

      4. Muscular, Post-anal Tail

  4. The invertebrate members of Phylum Chordata

    1. Subphylum Urochordata (tunicates)

      1. Chordate features in larvae vs. adults

      2. Appearance: larva vs. adults

      3. Feeding

    2. Subphylum Cephalochordata (lancelets)

      1. Chordate features

      2. Paedogenesis?

      3. Somites

      4. Feeding (similar to the Urochordata)


Study Questions


  1. Are Echinoderms protostomes or deuterostomes? Be sure you know what other features they possess as consistent with the morphologically-based evolutionary tree.




  1. Discuss why it is appropriate to place Phylum Echinodermata within the Bilateria.




  1. List/describe the four key features of Phylum Echinodermata.




  1. Why is the skeleton type of Phylum Echinodermata considered to be an "endoskeleton"? Compare this to an "exoskeleton".




  1. What are two functions of the water vascular system? From what is it derived? Describe how a tube foot moves, including other parts of the water vascular system as necessary.




  1. Describe the symmetry of larval echinoderms compared to the symmetry of adults.




  1. What are the key functions of the perivisceral coelom?




  1. Do Echinoderms have complete digestive systems?




  1. Describe the nervous system of an echinoderm.




  1. List the two major classes of Phylum Echinodermata we studied, and name representative members of each. Also, be able to recognize them from a picture or from key parts unique to a particular group.




  1. Know how members of Class Asteroidea and Class Echinoidea feed, their major structures/pathways for gas exchange, and how they protect themselves.




  1. Be sure you know the appearance, location and functions of the following echinoderm structures, and in which groups you find each (HINT: review lab as well as lecture).

    • spines

    • tube feet

    • pedicellariae

    • dermal papulae

    • Aristotle's lantern

    • madreporite

    • water vascular system

    • peristomial gills




  1. List and describe the four basic features of all members of Phylum Chordata. You should also be able to explain the function of these features.




  1. Name the invertebrate Chordate phyla.




  1. Be able to recognize a larval or adult Urochordata. Compare the larval Urochordata to the adult Urochordata in terms of the basic chordate features.




  1. Describe how adult Urochordates and Cephalochordates feed.




  1. Be able to recognize a larval or adult Cephalochordata. Compare the larval Cephalochordata to the adult Cephalochordata in terms of the basic chordate features.




  1. What is neoteny (paedogenesis), and how might it relate to the evolution of vertebrates?




  1. What are somites, and what do they become during development?


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©anasahife.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət