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Plant Family


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Supplemental Digital Content 3. Table that demonstrates human studies evaluating the effects of plants and phytochemicals on pancreatic cancer

Plant

Family

Part of plant

Active constituent(s)

Study design

No. of subject

Comparator

Duration of treatment


Effect

Reference

Allium sativum
L.

Amaryllidaceae

Bulb/aged extract

S-allylcysteine,

S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine, A-allylmercapto-L-cysteine and cycloalliin,

steroid saponins, fructosylarginine, and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-b-carboline-

3-caboxylic acids



Randomized double-blind trial

50

Placebo

6 months

Improvement of natural killer cell activity

[188]

Aloe arborescens
Mill.

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Leaves

aloe-emodine, acemannan and glycomannan

Randomized


240

Chemotherapy groupe

6 days prior to the onset of chemotherapy until the progression of disease

Increase in tumor regression rate and survival time

[189]

Chelidonium majus L.

Papaveraceae

Extract

Ukrain including one molecule thiophosphoric acid conjugated to threemolecules of chelidonine

Placebo-controlled

42

Control groupe (vitamin C and normal saline)

3 years

↑survival of pancreas cancer patients

[190]

Chelidonium majus L.

Papaveraceae

Extract

Ukrain


Controlled pilot

42

Control groupe(vitamin C and normal saline)

3years

↑quality of life and survival


[191]

Chelidonium majus L.

Papaveraceae

Extract

Ukrain


Controlled, randomized study

90

Gemcitabine group, Ukrain group and Gemcitabine plus Ukrain compared together

2 years

Ukrain alone and in combination with gemcitabine nearly doubled the median survival times

[192]

Curcuma longa L.

Zingiberaceae

Rhizome

Curcumin

Non-randomized, open-label, phase II trial

25

-

8 weeks

Tumor inhibitory properties

[193]







Curcumin + gemcitabine

Non-randomized, open-label, Phase I/II study


21

-

September

2008-august 2009



Median compliance rate of oral curcumin was 100% and median survival time after initiation of

curcumin was 161 days



[194]







Curcumin + gemcitabine

An open-labeled Phase II trial

17

-

November

2004-april 2006



6 patients (55%) had tumor progression



[195]

Ginkgo biloba
L. +5-fluorouracil

Ginkgoaceae

Leaf extract +5-fluorouracil





An open-labeled Phase II study

48

-



Progression of disease was observed in 22 (68.8%) patients, no change in 7 (21.9%) and partial response in 3 (9.4%)

[196]










Perillyl alcohol

A pilot study


8

-

15 days prior to their scheduled pancreatic resection

Mild toxicity, well tolerated , and no effect on Tumor size

[201]

PHY906 (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi., Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., Ziziphus jujuba Mill., and Paeonia lactiflora Pall.)

Lamiaceae Fabaceae Rhamnaceae Paeoniaceae

PHY906 + capecitabine




Single institution, open-label, Phase I study

15

-

ND

Increasing the therapeutic index of capecitabine by reducing side effects

[202]

Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc.







Isoflavones+ erlotinib + gemcitabine


Phase II study


20

-

2 years

No significant effect

[203]

Toxicodendron vernicifluum
(Stokes) F. Barkley

Anacardiaceae

The standardized allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua Stokes (aRVS) extract




Single-Center Experience


42

-

3.86 months

Positively effects on overall survival and clinical symptoms

[197]

Viscum album L.

Santalaceae

Mistletoe extract (a fermented extract)




Multicenter, controlled, retrospective and observational

400

-

At least three years or until death

Symptom control, overall survival


[199]

Viscum album L.

Santalaceae

Mistletoe extract

Lectins, alkaloids and viscotoxins

Prospective and randomised clinically controlled trial

70

Non isorel group

4 weeks

Improve overall health status of cancer patients undergoing surgery

[200]

Viscum album L.

Santalaceae

Mistletoe extract




phase I/II study

16

-

ND

No significant effect on tumor growth

[198]

ND: not determines


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