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REPUBLIC OF RWANDA



MINISTRY OF LANDS

RESETTLEMENT AND

ENVIRONMENT

NATIONAL STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN FOR THE CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY IN RWANDA


APRIL 2003


TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………………………i


  1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………..

1.1 Convention of Biological Diversity……………………………………………..

1.2 Institutional foundation of the national strategy and action plan……..

1.3 Methodology of the development and participatory process……………




  1. INTRODUCING RWANDA AND ITS BIODIVERSITY…………………………..

2.1 Geographical context………………………………………………………………………..

2.1.1 Physical features…………………………………………………………………….

2.1.1.2 Climate……………………………………………………………………………….

2.1.1.3 Hydrography……………………………………………………………………….

2.1.1.4 Soils……………………………………………………………………………………


2.1.2 Socio-economic data……………………………………………………………………..

2.1.2.1 Demography……………………………………………………………………….

2.1.2.2 Economy…………………………………………………………………………….
2.2 State of biodiversity in Rwanda………………………………………………………….

2.2.1 Natural ecosystems………………………………………………………………….

2.2.1.1 Mountain rainforests…………………………………………………………..

2.2.1.1.1 Natural forest of Nyungwe…………………………………………….

2.2.1.1.2 Volcanoes National Park……………………………………………….

2.2.1.1.3 Akagera National Park………………………………………………….

2.2.1.1.4 Gallery forests…………………………………………………………….

2.2.1.1.5 Wetlands and aquatic lands………………………………………….


2.2.2 Agro-ecosystems……………………………………………………………………..

2.2.2.1 Biodiversity in agricultural systems……………………………………….

2.2.2.2 Pastoral areas…………………………………………………………………….

2.2.2.3 Wooded areas……………………………………………………………………


2.2.3 Policies, laws, institutions related to biodiversity conservation………..

2.2.3.1 Policy thrusts………………………………………………………………………

a. Forests……………………………………………………………………………………..


  1. Aquatic reas…………………………………………………………………………….

  2. Crop areas and grazing land……………………………………………………

  3. Protected areas……………………………………………………………………….

2.2.3.2 Existing laws………………………………………………………………………

a. Forests……………………………………………………………… ……………………


  1. Aquatic areas………………………………………………………………………….

  2. Protected areas……………………………………………………………………….

  3. Agro-biodiversity……………………………………………………………………..

2.2.3.3 Involved institutions………………………………………………………………



  1. Ministries………………………………………………………………………………………

  2. Public institutions………………………………………………………………………….

  3. International non governmental organizations………………………………….

  4. International agencies……………………………………………………………………

  5. Local non governmental organizations…………………………………………….


3. MAJOR THREATS ON BIODIVERSITY IN RWANDA…………………………….
3.1 Natural threats………………………………..…………………………………………………

3.1.1 Erosion………………………………………………………………………………………..

3.1.2 Floods………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.1.3 Drought……………………………………………………………………………………….

3.1.4 Proliferation of competitive species…………………………………………………

3.1.5 Diseases and pets………………………………………………………………………… 3.1.6 Other threats…………………………………………………………………………………

3.2 Man-induced threats………………………………………………………………………..

3.2.1 Population pressure………………………………………………………………………

3.2.1 Resettlement of the population……………………………………………………

3.2.1 Overexploitation of biological resources…………………………………………

3.2.4 Uncontrolled introduction of exotic species…………………………………….

3.2.5 Poaching and biopirating………………………………………………………………

3.2.6 Bush fires……………………………………………………………………………………

3.2.7 Conflicts and wars……………………………………………………………………….


3.3 Threat associated with policy, legal and institutional short-

coming and human resources…………………………………………………………….


3.3.1 Policy related threats……………………………………………………………………..

3.3.1.1 Forestry policy…………………………………………………………………………

3.3.1.2 Wetlands management policy……………………………………………………

3.3.1.3 Agricultural and stockbreeding policy…………………………………………

3.3.1.4 Settlement policy……………………………………………………………………..

3.3.1.5 Protected areas policy………………………………………………………………


3.3.2 Legal framework related threats………………………………………………………

3.3.3 Institutional framework related threats…………………………………………….

3.3.4 Constraints related to human, material and financial resources…………..
4. NATIONAL STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN FOR CONSERVATION OF

BIODIVERSITY…………………………………………………………………………………..

4.1 National Strategy………………………………………………………………………………

4.1.1 Improved conservation of protected areas and wetlands…………………

4.1.1.1 Objectives and strategies…………………………………………………………..



  1. Improved protection and management of protected areas and wetlands………………………………………………………………………………………..

  2. Improved knowledge of the biodiversity of protected areas and

Wetlands……………………………………………………………………………………….

4.1.2 Sustainable use of the biodiversity of natural ecosystems and agro-

ecosystems…………………………………………………………………………………………

4.1.3 Rational use of biotechnology…………………………………………………………..

4.1.4 Development and strengthening of policy, institutional, legal and

human resources frameworks…………………………………………………………..

4.2 National Action Plan…………………………………………………………………………….
5. IMPLEMENTAION OF THE NATIONAL STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN

FOR CONSERVATON OF BIODIVERSITY………………………………………
5.1 Institutional coordination framework: National Coordination Unit on

Unit on Biodiversity (NCUD)…………………………………………………………………

5.2 Implementation and monitoring-evaluation mechanism of the

national strategy and action plan………………………………………………………….

5.3 Financing mechanism…………………………………………………………………………..

5.4 Constraints and opportunities………………………………………………………………..



LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Population growth and density from 1939 to 2013……………………………………


Table 2: Gross domestic Product per branch of activity (in million Frw)

From 1994 to 1998………………………………………………………………………………


Table 3: Surface area of lakes and associated marshes in Rwanda………………………..
Table 4: Animal races bred in Rwanda……………………………………………………………….
Table 5: Evolution of natural forest areas and wooded savannas (in ha)

1960 and 1999……………………………………………………………………………………


Table 6: Evolution of some animal species between 1947 and 1999 in the

Akagera National Park and Umutara Hunting Fields…………………………………


Table 7: Planned strategies according to Objectives……………………………………………..
Table 8: Action Plan for the conservation of biodiversity in Rwanda………………………..


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