Lab #2: Stress and Cellular Membranes
1. To explore the environmental factors (temperature, organic solvents) that may cause cellular membranes to rupture or fail.
2. To determine the extent of damage done to the vacuolar membranes of beet cells by measuring the amount of colored betacyanin exuded from the cellular tissue.
I. BACKGROUND MATERIAL
If you have ever cooked fresh beets, you know how much beet dye pours out of the cells into the cooking water. Why it is so potent? It’s because of betacyanin, a pigment found in the vacuoles of beet cells. In this laboratory, we will explore the structure of cellular membranes using beet dye as an indicator of the stress on the cellular tissue.
Mem·brane n: a lipid, protein bilayer covering all living cells and most internal organelles.
Biological membranes separate and organize the myriad reactions within cells and allow communication with the surrounding environment. Although quite thin (6-10 nm), membranes mediate the transport of most molecules into and out of cells, contain receptor molecules that detect other molecules or cells, and provide a covering to protect and facilitate cellular functions.
Membranes surround both cells themselves as well as the organelles within cells. For example, vacuoles are surrounded by a vacuolar membrane called the tonoplast. The entire cell is surrounded by the plasma membrane.
The structure of biological membranes is the basis of their many functions. The physical and chemical integrity of a membrane is crucial for the proper functioning of the cell or organelle that it surrounds.
Figure 1: Plasma membranes, illuminated in green
ertain treatments can stress and damage the cell’s membranes. High temperatures cause violent molecular collisions that can physically destroy a membrane, whereas freezing causes water to crystallize as ice and expand because of hydrogen bond alignment, often rupturing membranes. Application of physical stress, such as cutting, or organic solvents to cells can also rupture membranes. Organic solvents dissolve a membrane’s lipids, in effect reducing the membrane to tatters.
Refer to your Text for information concerning organic molecules (solvents), lipids and membrane structure.
B. Beet Cells and betacyanin
Beet tissue will be your model to investigate membrane integrity. Roots of beet (Beta vulgaris) contain large amounts of a water-soluble reddish pigment called betacyanin, which is localized almost entirely in the large central vacuoles of cells. In intact, undamaged cells, betacyanin remains inside the vacuole, not being able to pass through the tonoplast.
Sources of stress can cause betacyanin to leak through both the tonoplast and plasma membrane. This leakage will produce a red color in the water surrounding the stressed beet cells. The amount of membrane damage is directly related to the intensity of the color, and the intensity of the color can be quantitatively assessed using a spectrophotometer.
Spec·tro·pho·tom·e·ter n: An instrument used to measure the relative intensities of wavelengths in a spectrum.
Spectrophotometry is based on the principle that some substances absorb light of a particular wavelength better than of another wavelength. Each substance has an “absorption signature,” where it absorbs a certain amount of one wavelength of light, a different amount of a different wavelength of light, and so on. A spectrophotometer projects a beam of light of a particular wavelength through a solution contained in a glass cuvette, a test tube made of optically clear glass. The pigment will absorb some of the light, and the amount absorbed is proportional to the quantity of pigment present in the cuvette. This proportionality is called the Beer-Lambert Law:
A = Elc
The Beer-Lambert Law states the absorbance (A) of light is proportional to the light path (l) times the concentration (c) of the substance. The molar extinction coefficient (E, epsilon) is also included. Different substances absorb different amounts of light and therefore have different E values. Note that there is a linear relationship between absorbance and concentration.
Figure 2: The path of light through the spectrophotometer. Note that the prism can be rotated, allowing light of different wavelength to shine through the test substance.
View animation of Spectrophotometer (insert URL)
The “spec” is a very delicate instrument. When using a spec, please be careful and ask your TA if you encounter any difficulties. Often, you may think that a button is unresponsive when in fact the spec is working appropriately. As with any delicate machine, using it well takes practice. Remember that the spectrophotometer has to be “blanked” each time the wavelength dial is changed
Allow spec to warm up for 30 minutes before use.
1. Press A (from A/T/C) for “Absorbance”. Mode appears on display.
2. Press nm or nm to select wavelength.
3. Insert cuvette filled with the blank solution into cell holder and close sample door.
4. Press 0 ABS/100% T to set blank to 0A.
5. Remove blank and insert cuvette sample into cell holder. Measurement appears on LCD display.
Lab #2: Stress and
I FORMING HYPOTHESES
Recall the Experiment Cycle or Scientific Process:
1. Make observations about the natural world.
2. Ask questions about those observations.
3. Formulate a reasonable testable hypothesis to explain observations.
4. Create, execute, and replicate experiments testing the hypothesis and generating results.
5. Analyze results and draw inferences. This stimulates further inquiry. The cycle begins anew.
Observation: Living tissue often dies when frozen or subjected to very high temperatures or organic solvents. This may be due to the rupturing of the organism’s cellular membranes.
Question: What solvents or temperature ranges cause the most amount of cellular membrane damage to beet tissue (Beta vulgaris)?
1. Membrane damage increases as temperatures become more divergent from ambient (room) temperature.
2. Because cellular membranes are non-polar, more damage will be caused by solvents that are increasingly non-polar.
Experiment: You will use spectrophotometry to test your hypotheses. Betacyanin concentration in extracellular fluid will be used as the measure of membrane damage. See methods, section III.
Results: Record your results in self-explanatory tables and graphs. Do your results differ from/ agree with your classmates? What inferences can you make from your own results or from compiled results?
Work in groups of four or as directed by your TA.
1. Prepare nine uniform beet cylinders using a cork borer with a 8 mm inside diameter and trim each cylinder to 15 mm in length. Four of these cores will be used for the temperature-related treatments and five will be used for the solvent treatments.
2. Place cylinders in a beaker and rinse with room temperature tap water for 2 minutes to remove betacyanin that has leaked from damaged (cut) cells.
3. Place one cylinder in each of nine test tubes labeled appropriately.
B. Temperature-related treatments
1. Place a tube in an appropriate cold treatment at 0° C as directed by your TA Keep tube in cold treatment for 30 minutes.
2. While the cold tube is incubating, start the hot treatments. For each of the 3 hot treatments (20° C, 60° C and 100° C) remove the beet cylinder and place in separate beaker of water at appropriate temperature.
3. Keep each cylinder in individual hot treatment beakers for 1 minute.
4. Remove each beet cylinder from the treatment beaker in the hot baths carefully with forceps, being sure not to squeeze the cylinders. Return the beet cylinders to their respective test tubes, and add 10 ml room temperature tap water to each tube.
5. After 30 minutes remove the cold-treatment tubes and add 10 ml of room temperature tap water to each.
6. Keep all four temperature-treatment beet cylinders in their appropriate test tubes for 20 minutes, allowing any betacyanin to leak out into the 10 ml of distilled water.
7. Quantify your results for each treatment by placing a cuvette of each solution in a spectrophotometer and measuring absorbance at 460 nm, the wavelength at which betacyanin absorbance is the highest. Make sure to calibrate or “blank the spec” first with a cuvette of tap water by pressing button marked 0 ABS/100%T.
8. List your results in a neat, legible table, and graph your results with temperature as the independent variable on the x-axis and absorbance as the dependent variable on the y-axis.
B. Solvent-related treatments
1. Using the remaining five test tubes with beet cylinders, add 20 ml of the following concentrations of solvents to each tube:
2. Cover each tube with a small piece of parafilm.
3. Keep all tubes at room temperature for 20 minutes and shake each tube occasionally.
4. After 20 minutes remove each cylinder from its treatment.
5. Quantify your results for each treatment by placing a cuvette of each solution in a spectrophotometer and measuring absorbance at 460 nm. For tubes with solutions of betacyanin in acetone, make sure to “blank the spec” using 50% acetone first; for tubes with solutions in methanol, make sure to use 50% methanol to “blank the spec.”
6. List your results in a clear, legible table, and graph your results with solvent concentrations as the independent variable on the x-axis and absorbance as a continuous variable on the y-axis.
Lab #2: Stress and
V THOUGHT QUESTIONS
1. Compare you results to other lab groups. Do your individual results support or fail to support your hypothesis? Do the compiled results support or fail to support the hypotheses concerning temperature and solvent polarity and membrane damage.
2. Which treatment damaged the membranes the most? The least?
3. In general, which is more damaging to membranes, extreme heat or extreme cold? Why?
4. Relate the results of these experiments to the normal practices of freezing and cooking various foods.
5. Many plants, such as trees, over winter in sub-freezing temperatures, without damage to cells. How can plant cells protect themselves from ice damage?
6. The beets were subjected to cold temperatures longer than to hot temperatures to make sure that the beet sections were thoroughly treated. Why does the freezing treatment require more time?
7. Based on your results, are lipids soluble in both acetone and methanol?
8. Based on their chemical structures, which solvent used would you think has the most devastating effects on membranes? Why?
9. Is there a relationship between solvent concentration and membrane damage for each solvent?
10. Movement of water through membranes has long puzzled scientists. Based on its chemical structure would you expect water to move easily through a membrane? Why or why not?