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A SURVEY OF INDIGENOUS PLANTS USED FOR FOOD AND MEDICINE BY THE KADAZANDUZUN ETHNIC IN TAMBUNAN, SABAH EAST MALAYSIA

By

JULIUS KULIP



Forestry Department Sabah

Research & Development Division

 

A paper presented at



Borneo Research Council

Fourth Biennial Conference of

The Borneo Research Council

10 - 15 June 1996

Universiti Brunei Darussalam

 ABSTRACT



A survey of indigenous plants by the Kadazandusun ethnic in Tambunan for food and medicine was conducted for the first time by the Forest Department Sabah.   The survey was started in early 1989 and terminated in 1991.   Four villages were visited, there was namely Kampung Timboi, Kampung Sunsuron, Kampung Rompon and Kampung Kaingaran.  Informations were obtained by interviews with adults (usually head of the village) recognised as having a high level of knowledge of the particular plants.  Voucher herbarium specimens were made, numbered, identified and were deposited in the FRC herbarium at Sanakan.  A total of 168 specimens were collected.   117 of them are useful for medicine and the rest were for food.

INTRODUCTION

The survey of useful plants for food and medicine among the KadazanDusun ethnic in Tambunan was started n early 1989.  Systematic survey on useful plants on this area has not been done thoroughly in this district eventhough some studies on Medicinal plants by Guntavid in 1992, Kulip in : 1995 and Bamboo utilization by Kulip in 1992 were conducted earlier on.  The present study intends to help conservation of indigeneous plant and the ethnobotanical knowledge among the ethnic concerned.   Traditonally, local communities world wide are extremely knowledgeable  about indigenous plant and this has no exceptance for the Kadazandusun in Tambunan.   Unfortunately, much of this wealth of knowledge is today becoming lost as traditional  clutteres become eroded.  Thus, this survey  of plants for food and medicine in Tambunan is very important not only for the conservation of the indigenous plants and environment but is also helping  to mantain a sense of pride in local cultural knowledge and practices before it is lost.



STUDY AREA

The surveyed area was located in the central west part of Sabah, Malaysia (Map No.1).  The Town Centre of this district is located about 90 km east of Kota Kinabalu by road.  The vegetation here mostly  consisted of hilly mixed dipterocarp forest.  Most of the flat land in the valley are cultivated with wet paddy where  else the slope is cultivated mostly with 'Poring' bamboo or Gigantochloa levis.

The mean annual rainfall ranges between 1603 to 1915 mm.   Rains are irregular both in season and location, but usually coincide with the monsoon.  There is a dry season from February to June and during this time the villagers took advantage to harvest their paddy and other plants.  Temperatures vary from 30 ºC to 32 ºC during day time and may fall to 20 ºC  at night time.

The locals in Tambunan are traditionally farmer where they planting wet and hill paddy as their staple food.  The population of this district is around   12 000 and majority of them are from the Kadazandusun ethic which speak Kadazandusun.  They usually go for hunting and gathering forest produce or fire wood from the forest nearby.  This was done when they were in free time, usually when they finished planting paddy, that was between February to June every year.



METHODS

Information were obtained by interviews with adults recognised as having of knowledge of their culture.  The head of village usually contracted first to get some informations on the knowledgeable adults and to get background informations about the village.  Usually the head of village knows a lot of useful plants.  In most cases, interviewees had spent about two weeks in the village to get informations.

Field works were carried out at the following villages: Kampung Tikolod (December  1988), Kampung Timbou (May 1989 and September 1993), Kampung Sunsuron (December 1989), Kampung Kirokot (May 1990) and Kampung Kaingaran (February 1991).   Plants specimens were either collected in the forest or from the village's gardens with the help of the informants.  Kadazandusun names and their uses(for food and medicinal purposes only)were documented for each specimen using Sandakan herbarium book collection.  The data were cross-checked with informants  in other villages.   Photographs were also taken.  Most of the works were carried out with the help of the following informants whose ages are shown in parentheses.   Mr. Gidam Gawandi (80 - 90), Mr. Gambun Sadaman (70 - 80), Mr. Guriban Masidang (70 - 80), Mr. Gundiba (70 - 80) and Mr. Nain (80 - 90).  Voucher herbarium specimens were deposited and identified in the State Forestry Department herbarium in Sandakan by the author and was help by Mr George Majawat, Mr. Patrick Lassan and Mr. Leopold Madani.

RESULTS

There are 168 indigenous species of medicinal (Table 1) and food (Table 2) plants collected during the survey.  117 of them are for medicinal purposes and the rest are for food.  Of the 168 specimens, there are about 168 species in 64 families of plants.

7 species of medicinal plants are considered to be 'usap tagayo' by the local s here and the rest are considered as 'usap toomod'.  'Usap tagayo' or powerful medicine means that the particular  plant can heals the symptom effectively where else 'usap toomod' or ordinary/regular medicine can heals many

 Table 1



Medicinal Plants

SD          =      Soejatmi Dransfield

SAN        =     Sandakan herbarium number

NMPS      =     Native Medicinal Plants of Sabah

*             =      'Usap Tagayo' or Powerful Medicine

NA         =       Not available]



 

LOCAL

BOTANICAL NAME

PART(S)

USED

MEDICINAL

USES

COLLECTION

NO

NAME

SPECIES

FAMILY

BAHAB

Uncaria sp.

Rubiaccae

Leaf

Diarrhea

NMPS 64

BIDA

Hoya coronaria

Aselepiadaceac

Leaf

Swollen pancreas

SAN 135648

BIDON

Elephantopus tomentosus

Compositae

Root

Cough

NMPS 99

BINUANG

Ocotomeles sumatrana*

Datiscaccae

Bark

Bone pain &muscle sprains

NNPS 48

BONGOLIU

N.A

N.A

Leaf

Snake Bite

NMPS 48

BONSODON

Ludwigia sp.

Onagraceae

Entire plant

Tonic-bath




BOTU

N.A

Palmae

Young stem

Stimulate milk production for mother

SAN 135626

BOTUH

Alocacia sp.

Araceae

Rhizome

Antidote for bee sting

SAN 135631

BULITOTOK

Sida acuta

Malvaceae

Entire plant

Stomach-ache

NMPS 45

BUNGOLIU







Leaf

Skin disorder

NMPS 48

BURUNI

Artocarpus

Moraceae

Bark

Swelling body

SAN 135644

DALAI

Coix sp.

Cyperaccae

Shoot

Fever

SAN 135636

DUNGOU

N.A




Shoot

Boils

NMPS 82

DUNKOM-

DUNGKOM


N.A

Fabaccae

Leaf

Swelling arm

NMPS 82

GATA-GATA

Melastoma sp.

Melastomafaccae

Leaf

External bledding

SAN 135617

GATAS-GATAS

Merremia borneesis

Convoculaceae

Shoot

Swelling pancreas & Diarrhea

NMPS 65

GOLUNGANG

Aralia montana*

Araliaccae

Leaf

Antidte for snake bite and asthma

SAN 125789

GOMBILANG

Cassia alata

Leguminosae

Leaf

White fungi on skin

SAN 125789

GUGUNDANGON

Cyperus sp.

Cyperaceac

Entire plant

Febrifuges

NMPS 98

GUNATON

N.A

Menispermaccae

Root' sap

external wound

SAN 135612

HAMPUN

Annona muricata

Annonaccae

Bark

Vomit & Diarrhea

NMPS 58

HINTOTOBOU

Ficus septica*

Moraccae

Root latex

Post-partum care

NMPS 58

HOPUTUNG

N.A

N.A

Shoot's sap

White patches on eye

SAN 135622

KALANG

N.A

N.A

Entire plant

Dysentery, febrifuges and headache

NMPS 68

KATONG-KATONG

N.A

Polypodianccae

Rhizome

Diarrhea

NMPS 47

KINGKIMAT

Paspalum sp.

Poaccac

Entire plant

Febrifuges

NMPS 96

KIPOE

N.A

N.A

Stem's sap

Food poisoning

SAN 135635

KOLISISING

N.A

N.A

Leaf

Chest & waist pain

SAN 136468

KOMBING

Aralia sp.

Araliaceac

Latex

Vomit & Diarrhea

NMPS 73

KOPIT-KOPIT TANA

Uvaria sp.

Annonaccae

Leaf

Stomach-ulcers

NMPS 104

KOSUNG

N.A

N.A

Entire plant

Post-partum care

NMPS 104

KOSUP

Spatholabus oblongifolius

Leguminosae

Shoot

wounded skin

SAN 135639

KUININ

Brucea javanica

Simaroubaccae

Fruit

Febrifuges

NMPS 104

KULI-KULI

N.A

N.A

Entire plant

Chest pain & Rheumatism

SAN 135639

KULIMPIAU

Amarydium medium

Araccae

Entire plant

Influenza

NMPS 50

KULUBUNG

Panicum sp.

Poaccae

Entire Plant

Muscle sprain

NMPS 106(a)

KUYUH

N.A

N.A

Leaf

Muscle sprain

NMPS 42

LANGAD-LANGAD

Uvaria sp.

Annonaccae

Entire plant

Joints

NMPS 55

LANGGU

N.A

Euphorbiaccae

Bark

Fracture of bone

SAN 136451

LANGOD-LANGOD

N.A

N.A

Leaf

Chest pain & Rheumatism

SAN 135638

LANGSAD-LANGSAD

N.A

Annonaceac

Shoot

Swelling pancreas

NMPS 63

LIAS

N.A

N.A

Sap

Eye pain

SAN 136454

LIBAU

N.A

N.A

Rhizome

Swelling of make sex organ

NMPS 80

LINDOS

Litsea cubiba

Lauraccae

Leaf

Muscle sprain

SAN 122697

LIPOI

Tetrastigma sp.

Vitaccae

Shoot

Swelling pancreas

NMPS 63

LOHUNAI

N.A

Verbenaccae

Leaf

Wounded skin

NMPS 101

LONDUOD

Elastostema sp.

Urticaccae

Leaf

Febrifuges

NMPS 85

LONGUGAN

N.A

N.A

Leaf

Eczema

NMPS 83

LOSING-LOSING

Eugenia sp.

Myrtaccae

Bark

Drarrea

SAN 136458

MANDAHASI

N.A

Urticaccae

Shoot

Eye inflammations

NMPS 62

MONOMPURU OR TOMBUID(tombuid)

Eurycoma longifolia

Simaroubaccae

Root & Leaf

Stomach ache

NMPS 53

MONTOU

Bignonia sp.

Bignoniaccae

Stem & Leaf

Swollen knee

SAN 136457

NALU KAPAR

Hanguana malayana

Flagellariaceac

Rhizome

Muscular aches

NMPS 91

NITAP

N.A

Rubiaceae

Root

Tooth ache

SAN 136461

NONOBULON

N.A

Poaceae

Leaf

Itches and swollen finger

SAN 135650

PAAW

Vitex sp.

Verbenaceae

Leaf

Antidote for caterpillar sting

SAN 136455

PAKA

N.A

N.A

Root

Febrifuges

NMPS 100

PANGGOU

N.A

N.A

Leaf

Boils

NMPS 44

PANGOU

N.A

N.A

Leaf

Numb

NMPS 44

POKU RUNDUN

N.A

Palmae

Base of frond

Food Poisoning

SAN 136456

PONGUBAAB

Croton sp.

Euphorbiaceae

Shoot

eye pain

NMPS 54

PORING

Gigantochloa levis

Bambusoideae

Internal water at the lower culm

Bloody stoor

SAN 135646

POROPOT

N.A

Leguminosae

Leaf

Chest pain

SAN 136452

POSIOU

Rinorea sp.

Violaceae

Leaf & Fruit

Stomach ulcer

NMPS 97

POTUDANG

Zanthoxylum myriacanthum

Rutaceae

Leaf

Febrifuges and cough

NMPS 77

PUKUDITA

N.A

Rhmnaccae

Leaf

Skin disorders

NMPS 75

PUPUS

Tetrastigma sp.

Vitaceae

Leaf

Swelling arm

NMPS 49

ROMUS

Whifordiodendron niewenhuisii

Leguminosae

Stern's sap

Bloody stool

SAN 135628

ROMUS GOLUPO

N.A

Leguminosae

Stern's sap

Bloody stool

SAN 135628

ROMUT

N.A

N.A

Stern's sap

Post-partum care(Womb)

SAN 135640

RONGGU

Koordersiodendron pinnatum

Anacardiaceae

Bark

Dysentery

NMPS 88

RUMBIO

Meteroxyllon sago

Palmae

Shoot

Tonic

SAN 136464

SAGANDAP

N.A

Labiatae

Root

Internal worms

SAN 135630

SALUOI

N.A

Zingiberaceae

Entire plant

Joints & Muscle sprain

NMPS 90

SANGKUK MANIS

Phyllantus sp.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

Febrifuges and cough

NMPS 102

SIANG PAHAD

Schflerra sp.

Araliaceae

Entire Plant

Tonic-bath

N.A

SIBU

N.A

Zingiberaceae

Young stem

External bleeding

SAN 135623

SIDBU-SIDBU

Costus spinosa

Zingiberaceae

Shoot

Influenza

NMPS 60

SOHINATAD

Eleusine indica

Poaceae

Entire Plant

Febrifuges and cough

NMPS 105

SOLIPIDON

N.A

N.A

Entire Plant

Fever

SAN 135637

SORINGKALANG

Poikilospermum suaveolens

Cecropiaceae

Shoot

Wounded skin

NMPS 40

SUMBUN

Fisstigma aff. latifolium

Annonaceae

shoot

Colic

NMPS 71

SUMOSOHOD

N.A

Loranthaceae

Root

Tooth-ache

SAN 135619

SUMOSOKOT

N.A

Orchidaceae

Bulb

Chest  pain

SAN 135619

SUNI-SUNI

N.A

N.A

Leaf

Tonic

SAN 136460

TABIB

N.A

N.A

Leaf

Chest  pain

SAN 136459

TAMBAR

Maesa macrothyrsa

Myrsinaceae

Leaf

Chest pain

SAN 125756

TANDAHASI

Leucosyke capitella

Urticaceae

Plant's sap

Eye pain

SAN 135613

TANDAKI

Panicum palmifolium

Polygalanceae

Leaf

Skin crakus

SAN 125759

TANGGAL

Heliciopsis ortocarpoides

Proteaceae

Leaf

Skin crackus

SAN 125759

TANOM

Alocacia sp.*

Araceae

Sap

Measles

NMPS 74

TAPAKO

Drynaria sparsisora

Polypodiaceae

Rhinzome

Antidote for snake bite and asthma

SAN 125764

TAWAWO

Blumea balsamifera*

Compositae

Leaf

Swelling pancreas

NMPS 56

TIMBOGOSON

N.A

Leguminosae

Root

Diabetes

NMPS 106(b)

TIMBOLUNG

N.A

N.A

Leaf

Tooth-ache

SAN 135643

TINDARAH

N.A

Myrtaceae

Stem's sap

Diarrhea

SAN 135641

TINDAT

N.A

N.A

Root

Stomach ache

SAN 135647

TODOPON PUOK

Fagraea racemosa

Loganiaceae

Leaf & bark

Waist & chest pain

SAN 136462

TOGIUNG

Thysanolaena latifolia

Poaceae

Leaf & shoot

Febrifuges and cough

NMPS 94

TOGOD-OGOD

N.A

N.A

Stern

Yellow fever

NMPS 87

TOLONSI

Justicia gendarussa*

Acanthaceae

Leaf

Cough

NMPS 57

TOMBIAU

N.A

Rubiaceae

Root

Tonic bath

SAN 135614

TOMBIROG

Alistonia angustibola

Apocynaceae

Leaf

Muscle sprains

NMPS 43

TONGKOLOPISAU

N.A

Cucurbitaceae

Leaf

Headche

SAN 125785

TONGKUR-UNGUR

Costus sp.*

Zingiberaceae

Shoot

Asthma

SAN 136467

TONUI

N.A

Euphorbiaceae

Bark

masles

SAN 93615

TOPIRIKON

N.A

Convovulaceae

Sap & Shoot

Swollen pancreas

NMPS 84

TOPIS TOPURAK

N.A

Leguminosae

Leaf

Muscle sprain

NMPS 51

TOPIS TORUPUK

Tetrastigma sp.

Vitaceae

Leaf

Sprain

SAN 136453

TOPU

Nicolaia maingayi

Zingiberaceae

Fruit

Antidoles

NMPS 69

TOTOPIS SINUBU

N.A

Agavaceae

Entire plant

Sprain

SAN 135629

TUNGOU

Bischofia iavanica

Euphorbiaceae

Bark

Skin scald

NMPS 86

TURUDOI

Phaseolus sp.

Fabaceae

Leaf & shoot

Febrifuges and cough

NMPS 103

TUSIN-TUSIN

N.A

Leguminosae

Leaf

Skin diseases

SAN 136466

VIDSI-VIDSI

N.A

Agavaceae

Leaf

Skin itches

NMPS 92

N.A

Callicarpa sp.

Verbenaceae

Leaf

Stomach ache

NMPS 41

N.A

Polygala paniculata

Polygalaceae

Root

Stomach ulser

NMPS 76

 Table 2

Plants for food

 


LOCAL NAME

BOTANICAL NAME

PART EDIBLE

COLLECTION NO.

SPECIES

FAMILY

BALANAKAN

Arthocarpus venosus

Moraceae

Fruit

SAN 83547

BAMBANGAN

Mangifera pajang

Anacardiaceae







BELUNO

Mangifera caesia

Anacardiaceae

Fruit

SAN 74382

BURUNI

Artocarpus nitidus

Moraceae

Fruit

SAN 30186

DUKARUK

Schismatoglottis calyptrata

Araceae

Leaf

SAN 25474

GAMBIR

Trigonopleura malayana

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

SAN 49236

GIPUN

Erechthites valerianifolia

Asteraceae/Compositae

Leaf

RSNB 1221

HANSAT

Lansium domesticum

Meliaceae

Fruit

SAN 1226699

JARING

Archiodendron jiringa

Leguminosae

Fruit

SAN  126055

KALIABAS

Sygium sp.

Myrtaceae

Fruit

SAN 123265

KANDIS

Garcinia parvifolia

Guttiferae

Fruit

SAN 128515

KAPAYAN

Vaccinium bacantum

Eriaceae

New Leaf

SAN 80803

KAPOK

Bombax ceiba

Euphorbiaceae

New Fruit




KOGOPON SONDUHU

Castanopsis motleyana

Fagaceae

Nut

SAN 42712

KOLOMUNDUI

Nephelium maingayi

Sapindaceae

Fruit

SAN 73835

KOMBURIONG

Melastoma sp.

Melastomataceae

Leaf

SAN 121243

KUNGKURAD

Elaeocarpus sp.

Melastomataceae

Fruit

SAN 121243

LEMIDING

Stenochalena palustris

Blechnaceae

Fruit




LIMAU

Citrus sp.

Rutaceae

fruit

SAN 122352

LIPOSU

Baccaurea lanceolata

Euphorbiaceae

Fruit

SAN 114157

LUGUS

Areca catechu

Palmae

Fruit

SAN 69388

MANGA

Mangifera indica

Anacardiaceae

Fruit




MANGIS

Garcinia mangostana

Guttiferae

Fruit

SAN 109449

MARITAM

Nephelium ramboutan ake

Sapindaceae

Fruit

SAN 41800

PAKIS

Nephrolepis biserrata

Oleandraceae

Leaf

SAN 135765

PANGI

Pangium edule

Flacourtiaceae

Fruit for presevartive

SAN 31751

PAUH

Mangifera decaudra

Anacardiaceae

Fruit

SAN 133276

POHOD

Arenga undulatifolia

Palmae

Shoot

SAN 117361

PONGOLOBON

Litsea graciae

Lauraceae

Fruit

SAN 95482

PORING

Gigantochloa levis

Bambusoideae

Ground shoot

SAN 738

PUHUTAN

Artocarpus integer

Moraceae

Fruit

SAN 168709

PUNTI

Musa sp.

Musaceae

Fruit

SAN 75793

RANGAHAK

Nephelium lappaceum

Sapindaceae

Fruit

SAN 26134

RUKAM

Flacrurtia rukam

Flacourtiaceae

Fruit

SAN 118231

SANSAM

Amaranthus spinosus

Amaranthaceae

Leaf

SAN 100795

SUKANG

Durio oxleyanus

Bombacaceae

Fruit

SAN 61851

TAMAHANG

Bambusa vulgaris

Bambusoideae

Ground shoot

SAN 100257

TAMPASAK

Baccaurea macrocarpa

Euphorbiaceae

Fruit

SAN 111003

TAYAAN

Limnocharis flava

Limnocharitaceae

Leaf

SAN 14115

TIMADANG

Artocarpus odorastismus

Moraceae

Fruit

SAN 99842

TONDORUPIS

Antidesma ghaesembilla

Euphorbiaceae

Fruit

SAN 131601

TONGKUNGON

Bambusa blumeana

Bambusoideae

Ground Shoot

SAN 85731

TONSOM--ONSOM

Begonia sp.

Begoniaceae

Leaf

SAN 136478

TUHAU

Etlingera sp

Zingiberaceae

Shoot

SAN 120646

TUPOLOH

Durio zibethinus

Bombacaceae

Fruit

SAN 116304

TUTAN

Solanum sp.

Solanaceae

Leaf

SAN 127648

symptoms temporarily but sometimes it heals. ‘Usap tagayo’ usually can be found in undisturbed forest where else the ‘ usap toomod’ can be found planted in home gardens or grow wildly surrounding. Mixture of plants for medicinal purposes is also observed used regularly by the locals. ‘Pantang’ or taboo is kept during harvesting the plants for example when collecting a particular plant, it is only being done during early morning before the sun rises. Most the plants for medicine are come from the family of Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Zingirberaceae and Poaceae, where else the food plants mostly used from the family of Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae, Sapindaceae and Bambusoideae.

DISCUSSION

The knowledge of medicinal plants and food plants have been the key for the survival of the locals in Tambunan. The traditional plants for medical and edible know how have been inherited from ancestral experience among the locals here. Plants are very important for the local here not only for medical or food resources but as well as for the supply of construction materials or poison.

Today, eventhough the practice of modern medicine is widely spread, the traditional methods of healing using plants are still popular here because of either they cannot afford to buy them or they cannot afford to go to hospital due to expensive bus fare. But most of all the plants are still proven could be curing many diseases and are of great uses in primary health care in the district.

Indigenous food plants are still popular here in Tambunan. Regular indigenous food plants found in "Tamu" or local market are ground shoot of Gigantochloa levis (‘Poring bamboo’), Solanum so. (‘Tuton’), etlingera so. (Tuhau), Stenochalena palustris (‘Lemiding’) and Melastoma sp. (‘Komburiong’). The popularity of these plants eaten as vegetable still maintained among the locals here is because many of them not only eaten as vegetable, but the locals like it because the bitterness of the ‘Tutan’ can kill intestine worms in human body and can also reduces high blood preasure. The common and most popular vegetables are ‘Lemiding’, ‘Tuhau’, ‘Pakis’, ‘Poring shoot’, ‘Tayaan’ and ‘Tutan’. The most popular fruits are ‘Hansat’, ‘Kelibas’, ‘Manga’, ‘Punti’, and ‘Timadang’. There is only one plant used for meat preservative that is ‘pangi or Pangium edule.



CONCLUSION

The survey of the indigenous plants used for food and medicine y the Kadazandusun ethic in Tambunan has listed 168 plants in four villages. The need for this survey is not only for scientific curiosity but it is has practical aspects as the development of new local industries, the search for these plants for wider use in Sabah specifically and in the world generally.



Acknowledgement

This work is the result of coopertion of many people. Foremost, I would like to thank all the village people involved especially the informants for generously imparting their traditional knowledge of plants without which this documentation would not have been produced.

My deepest appreciation and gratitude goes especially to Datuk Miller Munang, former Forestry Department Sabah director for his encouragement.

I also wish to thank my colleagues at the forest Research Centre Herbarium in Sandakan for their assistance in the various fieldworks conducted in this district especially Mr. George Majawat.

Last but not least, my special thanks to the Borneo Research council for giving me this opportunity to share and present this paper.

REFERENCE

1. Guntavid, J.P. (1992). Traditional Medicinal Plants: Their uses by the Dusun/Kadazan of Tambunan. Borneo Research Council second Biennial International Conference. 13 – 17 July 1992. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Kulip, J and C.A. Matunjau(1992). Utilization of Bamboo in Tambunan National Bamboo Seminar.

Proceedings of the Seminar, 2 – 4 Nov 1992. Wan Razali Wan Mohd and Aminuddin bin Mohamad (Eds). FRIM, Kepong, 52109, Kuala Lumpur. pp. 26 –45.

Kulip, J. (1995). Ethnobotanical aspects of medicinal plants of Sabah. Journal of Tropical forest Science. FRIM, Kepong, Manuscript accepted for publication. No. 35/95.

 

Martin, G.J. (1995). Ethnobotany. A people and Plants.Conservation manual, Chapman & Hall.



 

 


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