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Grade 2 Science Table of Contents Unit 1: Properties of Matter 1 Unit 2: Sound and Light 11 Unit 3: Basic Needs of Living Things 21 Unit 4: Environment 32 Unit 5: Earth and Beyond 39 Unit 6: Weather 47


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Grade 2

Science



Grade 2

Science
Table of Contents
Unit 1: Properties of Matter 1
Unit 2: Sound and Light 11
Unit 3: Basic Needs of Living Things 21
Unit 4: Environment 32
Unit 5: Earth and Beyond 39
Unit 6: Weather 47

Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, Revised 2008

Course Introduction
The Louisiana Department of Education issued the Comprehensive Curriculum in 2005. The curriculum has been revised based on teacher feedback, an external review by a team of content experts from outside the state, and input from course writers. As in the first edition, the Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum, revised 2008 is aligned with state content standards, as defined by Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs), and organized into coherent, time-bound units with sample activities and classroom assessments to guide teaching and learning. The order of the units ensures that all GLEs to be tested are addressed prior to the administration of iLEAP assessments.
District Implementation Guidelines

Local districts are responsible for implementation and monitoring of the Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum and have been delegated the responsibility to decide if



  • units are to be taught in the order presented

  • substitutions of equivalent activities are allowed

  • GLES can be adequately addressed using fewer activities than presented

  • permitted changes are to be made at the district, school, or teacher level

Districts have been requested to inform teachers of decisions made.
Implementation of Activities in the Classroom

Incorporation of activities into lesson plans is critical to the successful implementation of the Louisiana Comprehensive Curriculum. Lesson plans should be designed to introduce students to one or more of the activities, to provide background information and follow-up, and to prepare students for success in mastering the Grade-Level Expectations associated with the activities. Lesson plans should address individual needs of students and should include processes for re-teaching concepts or skills for students who need additional instruction. Appropriate accommodations must be made for students with disabilities.
New Features

Content Area Literacy Strategies are an integral part of approximately one-third of the activities. Strategy names are italicized. The link (view literacy strategy descriptions) opens a document containing detailed descriptions and examples of the literacy strategies. This document can also be accessed directly at http://www.louisianaschools.net/lde/uploads/11056.doc.
A Materials List is provided for each activity and Blackline Masters (BLMs) are provided to assist in the delivery of activities or to assess student learning. A separate Blackline Master document is provided for each course.
The Access Guide to the Comprehensive Curriculum is an online database of suggested strategies, accommodations, assistive technology, and assessment options that may provide greater access to the curriculum activities. The Access Guide will be piloted during the 2008-2009 school year in Grades 4 and 8, with other grades to be added over time. Click on the Access Guide icon found on the first page of each unit or by going directly to the url http://mconn.doe.state.la.us/accessguide/default.aspx.

Grade 2

Science

Unit 2: Sound and Light



Time Frame: Approximately 15 instructional periods of 45 minutes per period

Unit Description
The focus of this unit is that sound and light travel as waves. Students investigate how light travels through some objects and is blocked by others. They will investigate how sound is produced through vibrations.

Student Understandings
The concept of sound and light waves are introduced through a variety of activities. Students will develop the understanding that sound is created when air moves back and forth quickly in a wave-like motion. These movements are called vibrations. The students will develop the understanding that light travels in a straight line at a high rate of speed.

Guiding Questions





  1. Can students explain how sounds are made?

  2. Can students describe how sound travels?

  3. Can students describe how light travels?

  4. Can students describe the appearance of objects that let light shine through?



Unit 2 Grade-Level Expectations


GLE #

GLE Text and Benchmarks

Science as Inquiry

2.

Pose questions that can be answered by using students’ own observations, scientific knowledge, and testable scientific investigations (SI-E-A1)

3.

Use observations to design and conduct simple investigations or experiments to answer testable questions (SI-E-A2)

4.

Predict and anticipate possible outcomes (SI-E-A2)

9.

Express data in a variety of ways by constructing illustrations, graphs, charts, tables, concept maps, and oral and written explanations as appropriate (SI-E-A5) (SI-E-B4)




10.

Use a variety of appropriate formats to describe procedures and to express ideas about demonstrations or experiments (e.g., drawings, journals, reports, presentations, exhibitions, portfolios) (SI-E-A6)

13.

Explain and give examples of how scientific discoveries have affected society (SI-E-B6)






Physical Science


21.

Use students’ own voices to demonstrate pitch (e.g., low, high) (PS-E-C1)

22.

Give examples of objects that vibrate to produce sound (e.g., drum, stringed instrument, end of a ruler, cymbal) (PS-E-C1)

23.

Change the direction of light by using a mirror and/or lens (PS-E-C2)

24.

Describe how light behaves when it strikes objects and materials (e.g., transparent, translucent, opaque) (PS-E-C2)

26.

Identify and describe sources of energy used at school, home, and play (PS-E-C7)


Sample Activities




Activity 1: I Think… (GLEs: 2, 3, 4, 9, 22 )
Materials List: white board or chart, jump rope or long length of rope, lunch-sized paper bags, paper for KWL chart
This activity may take two days to complete.
Using a modified opinionnaire (view literacy strategy descriptions) write the prompt, “Sound is more important than light,” on the board or a chart for the students to respond. This opinionnaire is modified because it only has a single question and is designed to be a whole-class discussion rather than a small-group one. Have students think about the statement for a moment prior to the group discussion. Next, have students take a stand and separate the students into two groups – those who agree and those who disagree. Begin the discussion by having students defend their opinion and explain the “why” behind their decision. Following the “debate” allow students who have changed their minds to move to the other group. Remember the emphasis is on the students’ points of view and not the “correctness” of their opinions. The statement is intended to elicit attitudes and feelings, which in turn promotes language production, activates relevant prior knowledge, and leads to engaged discussion and listening. The discussion the statement inspires then serves as a bridge to the information and ideas explored in future investigations.
Next have students sit quietly for one minute to listen to the sounds in the classroom. Discuss the sounds heard. Students may be surprised by the sounds heard that they had not noticed before. Continue the discussion using a class KWL chart, a graphic organizer (view literacy strategy descriptions), to record what students know or believe they know about sound. This chart is divided into three sections. In the “K” section of the chart, the teacher records what students know or believe they know about sound. In the “W” section of the chart, the teacher records what the students would like to know or what they wonder about sound. The “L” section of the chart is completed at the end of the unit to record what the students feel they have learned during the study of sound. Invite several students to create a sound using their body. Encourage volunteers to explain how and why they heard the sounds made. Through the discussion, develop the concept that sound travels in waves. Have students demonstrate wave-like motions with their bodies and name places they have seen waves (beach, wave pool, football games).
Wave Demonstration: Using a long length of rope or a long jump rope tie one end to a stationary object such as a teacher desk or door knob. Have a volunteer “flick” the free end up and down to see how waves move along the rope. Discuss how the flicking movement travels along the rope like a wave. This demonstrates how sound waves travel.
Investigation Task:

Safety Note: instruct students to hold the bags away from their head and/or ears.

Give each student a lunch-sized paper bag. Have the students predict what will happen if they blow into the bag, twist the top, hold the bag in one hand, and “slam” the bag with the other hand. Next have the students demonstrate what occurs using the above mentioned actions. Have students explain why they heard a loud popping sound. How was the sound made that traveled to their ears?


How It Works!

When the air-filled bag burst, the air trapped inside was forced through the hole in the paper bag. The escaping air gave a sudden push to the surrounding air. The push continued on through the air in a wave-like motion. The loud bang resulted as the powerful sound waves moved through the air and reached our ears.



Activity 2: Wave Time! (GLEs: 2, 3, 4, 10, 22)
Materials List: plastic dish pans or 9 x 12 baking pans, eye droppers, pitchers, water, science learning logs, Science Learning Log Recording Sheet BLM (optional), Science Learning Log Rubric BLM
What would sound waves look like if you could see them? This investigation is designed to answer this question. The students will observe a pattern of waves similar to sound waves that will serve to model.
Investigation Task: Divide students into small groups. Review previous lesson and engage students in a discussion using the question, “What would sound waves look like if you could see them?” Explain that each group will observe and investigate a pattern of waves similar to sound waves. Describe the following procedure (you may want to put it on the board or a chart) and have students engage in the task.



  1. Fill the pan with about 1 inch of water.

  2. Use the eyedropper to drop a single drop of water in the pan near one end.

  3. Observe the waves or ripples.

  4. Discuss with your partners the following questions:

What do you see? What happens to the ripples? How does this show or demonstrate what a sound wave might look like?

Have a designated materials manager get a pan, an eyedropper, and water for each group and begin investigation.


Once students have completed the task and discussion, have them record observations and new learning through illustrations and writing in their science learning log (view literacy strategy descriptions). This log is a notebook that students keep in content classrooms in order to record ideas, questions, reactions, new understandings, or visual representations such as diagrams, charts, etc. Documenting ideas in a log about content being studied forces students to “put into words” what they know or do not know. This process offers a reflection of understanding that can lead to further study and alternative learning paths. It combines writing and reading with content learning. Students can write freely in their science learning logs or use the optional Science Learning Log Recording Sheet BLM provided. An assessment rubric for science learning log entries is provided as the Science Learning Log Rubric BLM.
Notes:

*Remind students that this investigation only illustrates what a sound wave might look like if you could see it and that it is not an actual sound wave.

**Students may need a demonstration of how to work an eyedropper.


Activity 3: Good Vibrations (GLEs: 2, 4, 10, 21, 22)
Materials List: plastic rulers, balloons, hand air pumps (optional), science learning logs, Science Learning Log Recording Sheet BLM (see Activity 2), Science Learning Log Rubric BLM (see activity 2), photos of musical instruments
This activity may take two days to complete.
Nearly every sound you hear is made by something vibrating. All things that make a sound do so by making the air shake back and forth very quickly. This shaking is called vibration. These vibrations travel as sound waves. Although we cannot see sound waves, we can sometimes see the vibrations that make the sounds.
Investigation Task: Ask the question, “What would happen if you bent a ruler over the edge of your desk, held down one end, pushed down the other end and then let it go?” (You may want to demonstrate the position without causing the vibrations.)
Give students time to voice predictions without responding to them. Next give out rulers for student exploration of vibrations. Remind students of safety procedures and ruler etiquette.
As students explore, engage them with questions such as, “What happens to the sound when more or less of the ruler is hanging over the edge of the desk?” As students begin to discuss the sounds, introduce the term pitch to describe the highness or lowness of the sound.
Next have students explore how to make sounds using the balloons. If manual air pumps are not available, students will need to blow the balloons up by mouth. Remind students of safety issues related to not sharing balloons blown up by mouth and of blowing the balloons up too much. Students will eventually begin to hold the neck of the balloons and pull to let the air out causing a “raspberry” sound. Let volunteers suggest what is creating the sound that comes from the balloon (see How It Works!). Invite students to tighten or loosen their hold on the neck of the balloon to see how many different sounds they can make. Introduce the term pitch which refers to the highness or lowness of a sound. Have students explore how to make higher and lower pitched sounds with the balloons. Engage students in a discussion of familiar musical instruments. Have students suggest how each produces vibrations to create sound waves.
Have students describe the activity in their science learning logs (view literacy strategy descriptions) including an explanation of how the “raspberry” sound was created. Students can write freely in their science learning logs or use the optional Science Learning Log Recording Sheet BLM provided. An assessment rubric for science learning log entries is provided as the Science Learning Log Rubric BLM.
How It Works!

As the air escapes from the balloon, the neck of the balloon vibrates causing the “raspberry” sound.


Additional Resource:
Fantasia DVD/Video – There is a wonderful sequence showing vibrations as different instruments are played.

Activity 4: How Low Can You Go? (GLEs: 2, 21)
Materials List: Goldilocks and the Three Bears story book
Through guided questions, review previous activity with the class and discuss the meaning of pitch (the “highness or lowness” of a sound) as it relates to sound.
Read the story, Goldilocks and the Three Bears. Have students volunteer to be the characters in the story. Reread the story while the volunteers use their “bear” voices to speak each part. After the rereading, discuss how each student changed his/her voice to portray his/her character.

  • How did you use your voice to demonstrate pitch?

  • What are other examples of sounds with a high or low pitch?

Discuss the vibrations of vocal cords. Have students place their hands on their throats to feel the vibrations as they speak or sing a note.


How It Works!

Air is pushed from your lungs over flaps of muscle called vocal cords. The vocal cords begin to vibrate when the air passes over them. This creates the sound of your voice.



Activity 5: You Are My Sunshine (GLEs: 2, 4, 10)
Materials List: white board or chart, science learning logs, Science Learning Log Recording Sheet BLM (see Activity 2), Science Learning Log Rubric BLM (see Activity 2), a variety of resource texts (see resource list)
Using the SPAWN strategy (view literacy strategy descriptions), write the following prompt on the white board or chart: “What if you woke up and the Sun was no longer shining and it was completely dark outside? What do you think would happen?” SPAWN is an acronym that stands for five categories of writing options (Special Powers, Problem Solving, Alternative Viewpoints, What If?, and Next). This is an informal type of writing that gets students thinking about the content to be presented or reflect on what has just been learned. Have students copy (or provide response sheets with prompt) and respond to the questions in their science learning logs, (view literacy strategy descriptions). After an appropriate amount of time have volunteers share their responses. Encourage students to engage in a discussion of some of the ideas presented by their peers. An assessment rubric for science learning log entries is provided as the Science Learning Log Rubric BLM.
Introduce and display several resource texts about light. Read selected sections to confirm predictions or provide new information about the importance of the Sun.

Activity 6: You’re Darn Straight! (GLEs: 2, 3, 4, 24)
Materials List: equal-sized cardboard squares with holes (paper-punch size) in the center, modeling clay, flashlights, string
Light and sound both travel in waves. Light does not need air to travel. It can pass through empty space where there is nothing to carry it. Light waves travel in straight lines, but they travel so fast we can’t see them move. We see light waves as a straight, steady beam of light. Light travels much faster than sound, so we see light almost in the same second that it is made.
Class Discussion: Ask “Since light and sound both travel as waves, do you think they travel at the same speed?” Facilitate a discussion. As the discussion progresses, have students think about

  • Thunderstorms – what comes first, thunder or lightning?

  • Fireworks Displays – does the “boom” happen at the same time as the lights?

  • Baseball Games – do you hear the sound of the ball hitting the bat at the same time you see the ball go into the air?

Investigation Task: Explain to the students that they will be investigating how light travels in straight lines. Divide the class into groups. Each group will need 3 cards with holes in the center, some string, modeling clay and a flashlight. Describe the following procedure (you may want to put it on the board or a chart) and have students engage in the task. Remind students of safety issues of looking directly into a beam of light.




  1. Use lumps of clay (one on each side of card) to stand the cards up so that all the holes are in a straight line.

  2. Check that the holes are lined up by passing a length of string through the holes.

  3. Take the string out. Look to see if you can see through the three holes.

  4. Wait for the lights to be turned off.

  5. Place the flashlight against the first piece of cardboard and shine it through the first hole. Look at the card farthest away from the flashlight. You should be able to see the light shining through.

  6. Move the middle card about one inch to the left. What happens to the ray of light now?

Observe students as they work to complete the investigation. When appropriate, ask students to explain what happens when the middle card gets moved. Once all students have completed the investigation, facilitate a group discussion of what happened during the investigation and why.


See book, Sound and Light, in Resources section.


Activity 7: Just Passing Through (GLEs: 4, 9, 10, 24)
Materials List: white board or chart: an envelope with coins in it; a raw egg; construction paper; clear plastic wrap; a variety of objects that are opaque, translucent, or transparent; flashlight; Just Passing Through BLM
Most objects can be classified as opaque (no light passes through), translucent (some light passes through), or transparent (all light passes through).
Demonstration Lesson:

Write the words opaque, translucent, and transparent on the white board or on a chart. Discuss the meaning of each word as it relates to light. Have students predict what category the object you are going to shine the flashlight on will fit into. After demonstrating with each object, have students discuss why they think an object fits into a particular category. Hint: Press the flashlight onto the objects.

Object 1 - plastic wrap (transparent)

Object 2 - envelope with coins (translucent)

Object 3 - construction paper

Object 4 – raw egg


Investigation Task: Divide students into groups. Provide a variety of objects and materials (e.g., white paper, colored paper, a book, sheer material, plastic wrap, waxed paper) and a flashlight. Students will make predictions as to whether or not the light will pass through the object and justify their reasoning to their partners. Using the Just Passing Through BLM provided, students will record their predictions and findings.

Activity 8: Mirror Magic (GLEs: 4, 9, 10, 23)
Materials List: white board or chart, student class mirrors, flashlights, Mirror Magic BLM
When light hits a surface, the light rays bounce or reflect off of that surface. Light rays reflect best off of flat, shiny surfaces. Mirrors are made of very flat glass with a shiny coating on the back. The sunlight penetrates the glass and hits the shiny coating on the back of the mirror and “bounces” or reflects off of the mirror. In this way mirrors can be used to change the direction of light.
Facilitate a discussion using the following prompt: “How do mirrors work?”
Investigation Task: Divide students into pairs. Give each pair a mirror with which to explore. Remind students to never look directly at the Sun, even when it is reflected in a mirror. List the following possibilities on the white board or a chart:


  • Mirror Writing – put a piece of paper in front of a mirror. Look in the mirror and carefully write your name or message on the paper. The writing will be in “code” unless it is read using a mirror.

  • Sun Catching – catch the Sun’s light and send signals.

  • Eye-Spy – position the mirror to see around the edge of a corner or desk.

  • Flash! – shine a flashlight into the mirror and see the beam reflect back.

To demonstrate understanding, have students illustrate light hitting a mirror using the Mirror Magic BLM provided. Have the students use arrows to depict the direction the light is traveling. The illustration should demonstrate the light source, the light “bouncing” off of the mirror, and the change in the direction of the light.


Once students have completed exploring with mirrors, facilitate a group discussion of the observations made during the investigation. Facilitate a discussion of how students believe a periscope works. If time permits, build a periscope as described in the book, Great Experiments with Light, listed in the Resource section.

Activity 9: Using Energy (GLEs: 10, 13, 26)
Through a group discussion develop the understanding that energy is the ability to do work. Brainstorm a list of types of energy the students encounter at home, school and play such as electrical energy, light energy, solar energy, mechanical (e.g., muscle) energy, and chemical (e.g., fuel) energy.  Facilitate in students designing a graphic organizer that will show energy being used at home, school, or play and what category of energy is being used. For example:

Work Being Done

Type of Energy Used


Turning on a light

Electrical and mechanical energy

Climbing the monkey bars

Mechanical (muscle) energy

Light (glow) stick

Chemical and light energy

Students could also design, present, and display posters that demonstrate one source of energy. To assure a clear understanding of what is meant by a source of energy, generate a class list of possible sources of energy (e g. solar, electrical, fossil fuels). Have students discuss how the scientific discoveries about different types of energy and inventions that use energy affected society. Scientific discoveries use all types of energy. Ask students what is the most important type of energy. Students should understand that one type of energy is no more important than another. Is one type of energy better than another? Why? (cost, cleanliness, availability)?



Sample Assessments



General Guidelines

Documentation of student understanding is recommended to be in the form of portfolio assessment. Teacher observations and records, as well as student-generated products, may be included in the portfolio. All items should be dated and clearly labeled to effectively show student growth over time.




General Assessments





  • The students will be informally observed as the teacher records observations, using anecdotal notes as he/she circulates throughout the classroom.

  • The students will be assessed with a teacher-created checklist of skills and concepts.

  • The students will create work such as drawings, data collection charts, photographs of models, and experiment results.


Activity-Specific Assessments





  • Activities 2, 3, and 5: The students will complete science learning log entry describing observations of activity. See the Science Learning Log Rubric BLM for assessing.

  • Activity 7: The students will complete a chart of opaque, translucent, and transparent objects using the Just Passing Through BLM.

  • Activity 8: The students will demonstrate their understanding of light through pictures and writing, using the Mirror Magic BLM.



Resources
Books


  • Glover, David. Sound and Light, ISBN 1-859697-839-7

  • Wood, Robert. Sound Fundamentals, ISBN 0-07-071811-3

  • Cash, Terry. Sound, ISBN 0-531-19064-1

  • Fiarotta, Phyliss and Noel. Great Experiments with Light, ISBN 0-8069-6505-3

  • Walpole, Brenda. Light, ISBN 0-531-19026-9

  • Murphy, Bryan. Experiment with Light, ISBN 0-8225-2454-6

  • Fantasia DVD/Video


Websites


  • Dragonfly TV Extreme Sound. Available online at http://pbskids.org/dragonflytv/show/extremesounds.html

  • LPB Cyberchannel (www.lpb.org/cyberchannel)



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