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Ethnomedicinal studies on wetland plant diversity of district buxar


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ETHNOMEDICINAL STUDIES ON WETLAND PLANT DIVERSITY OF DISTRICT BUXAR (BIHAR, INDIA)

Arvind Singh1, Manavendra Kumar Singh2, Dharmendra Kumar Singh3, Ritesh Singh4*

1. Head, Department of Chemistry, Pranav Chatarjee College, Buxar, Bihar, India

2. Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, U. P., India

3. Research Scholar, Dept. Of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, U. P., India 4. Research Scholar, Dept. Of Botany, M. V. College, Buxar, Bihar, India

[E.mail: riteshsomvanshi@gmail.com]


Abstract

Buxar district (Bihar, India) is one of the less floristically studied regions of central Gangetic plain. The district lacks dense forests and its medicinal flora exclusively consists of dicot angiosperms. This paper deals with the wetland medicinal plant diversity of Buxar district, Bihar and their traditional medicinal uses. Various wetlands and small perennial and seasonal water bodies are found in this district. Field observation and other literature studies indicated that district Buxar has 26 wetland or aquatic medicinally important plant species belonging to 23 genera and 18 families of angiosperms. Botanical names, local name, family, and medicinal uses of species are provided in this paper.




Introduction
The area the Buxar district is an administrative district of Bihar. The district has its headquarters at Buxar. The river Ganges and Karmnasa divide it from Uttar Pradesh. The total area occupied by the district is 1624sq. km. Buxar has geocoordinate N-E 25°44'33"/ 83°46'45" and S-W 25°15'47"/84°23'. It has an average elevation of 56 meters (186 feet) above the sea level. The rivers flowing through the district are Ganga and Karamnasha. River Ganges (Ganga) forms the border in north and in the west river Karmanasa.
The entire strip of land between the river Ganges and stretches in south beyond main line of the Eastern Railways. The land form is low lying alluvial plane of river Ganges and her tributaries- Thora and Karmanasa. The river Karmansa joins the Ganges near Chousa. The region is considered to be the best wheat growing area in the State and India. The present district of Buxar consists of areas under Buxar sadar and Dumraon Subdivision of the old Bhojpur district and came in existence in the year 1991. Buxar district is bounded on the north by Ballia district of Uttar Pradesh, on the south by Rohtas district, on the west by Ghazipur and Ballia districts, and on the east by Bhojpur district.
The area has many natural water resources including river Ganga, Karamnasa, Thora, Kaon along with many small water bodies like tal, ponds, swamps, marshes and water logging areas. These wetlands are sources of important aquatic and semi aquatic medicinal plants. Very few works have been reported on ethno medicinal uses of wetland plant species found in this area. This paper is an attempt to document the ethno medicinal wetland plants and the indigenous knowledge prior to their extinction.

Methodology
Wetland medicinal plants were collected through survey based field observations. To collect the plant samples several field trips to different part of the district Buxar were conducted from March 2011 to March 2012. Traditional medicine practitioners and locales were interviewed to know the medicinal importance of these plants. The data collected is based on first hand information. The collected plants were processed, dried and herbarium specimens were prepared which later on identified with the help of floras, herbaria as well as in consultation with experts.
Results and Discussion
Present studies revealed the occurrence of total 26 species under 23 genera and 18 families which are medicinally important. The enumeration embodies alphabetically arranged list of plant species priding correct botanical name of species followed by local name(s), part use and uses. Plant part uses in different problems like skin problems including wounds, eczema, stomach problems gastro-intestinal, diarrhea, dysentery, bone fracture, blood dysentery, and use as a tonic in different forms such as juice, extract, paste, etc. On the other hand, water is the prime requisite for the vegetation of the wetland and any alteration in the availability of water affects their presence as well as distribution. However due to anthropogenic activities, these wetlands are disappearing at an alarming rate and most of the area of the wetland has been converted to agriculture fields and residential colonies. Therefore, there is an urgent need of the time to conduct a detailed survey of the wetlands of this region.
Conclusion
From this minor study, 26 species of wetland plants belonging to 18 families were recorded to be used by the traditional medicine practitioners and locales of the district Buxar of Bihar. These medicinal plant remedies comparatively have certain advantages as these are easily accessible and affordable to the rural community. The data reported in this survey could assist in identifying plant species which could be considered for the developing drugs and formulations for many diseases and medicinal complications like dysentery, stomachic, fever, cardiac and nerve problems, skin disease, bone fracture, wound etc. for the people living in remote and backward areas.

Acknowledgements
Authors are thankful to the local people, particularly to the informants for their kind cooperation in providing information on the medicinal uses of the wetland plants of the study area. We wish thank to Dr. T.N. Singh, Department of Botany, M.V. College, Buxar and Dr. Ajay Kumar Singh, Department of Botany, U.P. College, Varanasi for their constant encouragement and support during this work.
REFERENCES


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  1. Vegetation of Gorakhpur. Indian Forester 94: 819-821.53




  1. Saini, D.C. Singh S.K. and R. Kamlesh (2010). Biodiversity of Aquatic and Semi-Aquatic Plants of Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh State Biodiversity Board.




  1. Sen, D.N. (1959). Ecological studies on aquatic & swampy vegetation of Gorakhpur, Agra Univ. J. Res. (Sci) 8: 1-14.



  1. Singh, Arvind. Singh Kumar, Manavendra and Singh, Ritesh (2013) : Traditional Medicinal Flora Of District Buxar (Bihar, India) , Journal Of Pharmacgonsy nad Phytochemistry



  1. 14. Singh, K.K. & Maheshwari, J.K. (1983). Traditional phototherapy amongst the tribals of Varanasi District, Uttar Pradesh. J Econ Taxon

Bot 4: 829-837.


  1. Srivastava, A.K. Dixit, S.N. and Singh, S.K. (1987). Aquatic Angiosperms of Gorakhpur, Ind. J. Forestry. 10: 46-51.




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Table 01


S.N.

Botanical Name

Local Name

Parts Used

Uses


01.

Alternanthera sessilis L. (Amaranthaceae)

Garundi, Guroo

Shoot, Leaf


Tender shoot and leaf boiled or roasted and given in dysentery, used as stomachic and as a digestive.

02.

Acorus calamus L.

(Acoraceae)



Bach

Dried Rhizome


Leaf and shoot used as antiseptic on cuts and wounds and healing to check bleeding.

03.

Alisma plantago L. (Alismataceae)





Rhizome,

Tuber


Used as stomachic and as a digestive.

04.

Alocasia macrorrhiza L. G.Don L G. Don syn. (Araceae)


Arve


Rhizome


Paste of rhizome is applied on abscesses to expel pus.

05.

Ammannia accifera L. (Lythraceae)


Dadmari


Leaves


Leaves used in fever.

06.

Bacopa monnieri L. Pennell. (Scrophulariaceae)


Brahmi


Whole plant


Used as cardiac and nerve tonic.


07.

Centella asiatica L. (Apiaceae)


Brahrni-buti


Whole plant


Used in chronic dysentery, poultice is applied on carbuncle, cuts, as antiseptic in wounds.

08.

Ceratophyllum demersum L. (Ceratophyllaceae)


Sivara


Leaf,

Shoots


Leaf juice is used to stop vomiting, as cooling agent.

09.

Commelina benghalensis L. (Commelinaceae)


Kanchara


Leaf, Shoot


Paste is made from stem and leaves and used in bone fracture.


10.

Cyperus aromaticus Ridl. Mattf. & Kük. (Cyperaceae)


Galmotha


Rhizomes


Tubers are medically used in skin disease.


11.

Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae)


Motha


Rhizomes


Tubers paste is used as appetizer.


12.

Eclipta postrata L. (Asteraceae)


Bangraiya


Leaf,

Shoot


Leaf juice mixed with coconut oil is applied to cure white spots due to burning. It is good for blackening and strengthening of the hair and for strengthening.


13.

Grangea moderaspatana L. Poir. (Asteraceae)


Mustaru


Leaves


Used in spleen diseases.


14.

Heliotropium indicim L.

(Boraginaceae)



Hathi sunda


Leaves


Useful in skin infection, insect-bites and rheumatic pains.

15.

Imperata cylindrica L. P. Beauv. (Poaceae)


Dabh, Siru


Roots

Use as emollient, haemostatic and ant febrile.


16.

Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. (Convolvulaceae)

Karmi


Leaf, whole plant, root


About 30 to 50 ml of leaf extract is orally taken to control bleeding during child birth.


17.

Lindernia crustae L. F. Muell.

(Scrophulariaceae)




Kasidoria


Whole plant


Used in dysentery and ringworm.


18.

Lindernia Cordifolia Colsm. Merr. (Scrophulariaceae)





Leaves

Used for gonorrhea.


19.

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nelumbonaceae)


Kamal


Seeds,

Fruits,


Leaf

Seeds are used as raw, flowers and leaves are used in religious aspect and in rituals. Flowers are eaten raw especially by the children. Fruits are used for cardiac treatment.


20.

Nelumbo nouchali. Burm. syn. N. lotus L. (Nymphyaceae)


Baga Bhet Red water lily


Fruits,

Seeds


Ripe fruits are eaten raw (seeds) especially by the young boys and girls, flowers are eaten fried.


21.

Pistia stratiotes L.

(Araceae)




Bor puni


Whole plant


Juice is used in treatment of asthma and cough.


22.

Polygonum glabrum Willd. (Polygonaceae)


Pani-mirch


Root, leaf


Crushed leaves are taken in pneumonia.


23.

Rumex nepalansis Spreng. (Polygonaceae)


Tar Bowra


Leaf,

Root


Leaf juice is used in hopping cough and Roots in wounds and muscle swelling.


24.

Trapa natans L. syn. Roxb. (Trapaceae)


Singhra


Fruits


Raw fruits are used raw in the treatment of diarrhea and dyspepsia.


25.

Xanthium strumarium L. (Asteraceae)


Chota Dhatura


Seeds,

Fruits


Oil from seeds is used to cure pain.


26.

Vetiveria zizanoides L. Nash. (Poaceae)


Khas


Root


Root uses as diaphoretic, refrigerant, febrifuge.







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