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Ess I ib practice Question 5 1


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Name: _______________________________

Date: _______________________ Score: ___________


ESS I IB Practice Question 5

1. An ecological study has been carried out in a small deciduous woodland. The aim of the study is to establish the baseline ecological conditions within the site as part of an environmental impact assessment.

As part of the ecological survey, floral diversity has been monitored on a species by species basis. The results for primroses (Primula vulgaris) are shown below. Ten 50 cm × 50 cm quadrats were positioned randomly within the woodland and the number of primroses in each quadrat were recorded. The results are shown in table 1.



Table 1. Primrose counts


Quadrat

Number of Primroses

1

10

2

23

3

23

4

34

5

12

6

56

7

12

8

8

9

5

10

23

(a) (i) Calculate the mean number of primroses per quadrat.

........................................................................................................................... (1)

(ii) Using the mean number of primroses, calculate their density per metre square of woodland.

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........................................................................................................................... (2)

(iii) Outline an environmental gradient that might be present in a woodland.

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........................................................................................................................... (1)

(iv) Outline a possible method for measuring changes along this gradient.

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........................................................................................................................... (2)

Name: _______________________________

Date: _______________________ Score: ___________


ESS I IB Practice Question 6

(i) The deciduous woodland contains the following breeding birds.



Table 2


Breeding Birds

Number of Pairs

Robin (Erithacus rubecula)

4

Wood pigeon (Columba palumbus)

10

Blue tit (Parus caerulus)

22

Yellow wagtail (Motacilla flava)

3

Stock dove (Columba oenas)

1

Blackbird (Turdus merula)

4

Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes)

4

Green woodpecker (Picus viridis)

2

Sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus)

1

Use Simpson’s diversity index to determine the species richness (in terms of bird pairs) within the woodland.

Simpson’s diversity index is calculated using the equation:


where N = total number of individuals of all species found and n = the number of individuals of a particular species.

(3)

(ii) State what a low diversity index indicates about a habitat and suggest how a low value may occur.

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........................................................................................................................... (2)

(iii) Distinguish between the terms diversity and abundance.

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...........................................................................................................................(2)


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