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Appendix 1 The total number of vegetation plots and inventoried species in different pH and conductivity classes in the three study regions. “Plots” means the number of vegetation plots within particular class, “All sp.” means the total number of plant species found in particular class




pH<6




pH 6−7




pH > 7




Cond.<50




Cond.50−100




Cond.>100

























(µS.cm–1)




(µS.cm–1)




(µS.cm–1)




Region

Plots

All sp.

Plots

All sp.

Plots

All sp.

Plots

All sp.

Plots

All sp.

Plots

All sp.

Swiss Alps

9

72

16

159

33

207

8

78

12

126

25

196

W. Carpathians

20

130

27

152

22

174

47

206

6

90

16

129

Bulgarian Mts

13

95

33

145

13

84

46

143

8

104

5

43

Appendix 2 Species list of acidophyte, basiphyte, calcifuge and calcicole species derived from the generalized additive model with respect to water pH and water conductivity optima in the (sub)alpine springs of Swiss Alps (n=58), Western Carpathians (n=69) and Bulgarian mountains (n=59). Species was assigned as acidophyte and basiphyte, if pH optimum < 6 and > 7, respectively; calcifuge and calcicole, if conductivity optimum < 50 and > 100, respectively. Only species with occurrence n > 10 are presented

Acidophyte species (pH response optimum < 6)



Swiss Alps W. Carpathians Bulgarian Mts

Aulacomnium palustre Aconitum firmum Aneura pinguis

Carex echinata Calamagrostis villosa Deschampsia caespitosa

Carex nigra Caltha palustris Dicranella palustris

Dicranella palustris Carex nigra Festuca rubra

Epilobium nutans Deschampsia cespitosa Geum coccineum

Equisetum palustre Dicranella palustris Philonotis seriata

Juncus alpinoarticulatus Dichodon cerastoides Scapania undulata

Juncus filiformis Epilobium anagallidifolium Veratrum album ssp. lobelianum

Leontodon autumnalis Epilobium nutans

Luzula sudetica Chiloscyphus polyanthos

Nardus stricta Ligusticum mutellina

Philonotis seriata Luzula alpinopilosa

Phleum commutatum Nardus stricta

Pinguicula leptoceras Oreogeum montanum

Poa supina Pellia neesiana

Scapania irrigua Scapania uliginosa

Trichophorum cespitosum Scapania undulata

Warnstorfia exannulata Soldanella carpatica

Viola biflora

Warnstorfia exannulata

Basiphyte species (pH response optimum > 7)



Swiss Alps W. Carpathians Bulgarian Mts

Agrostis stolonifera Agrostis stolonifera Achillea clusiana

Arabis soyeri Aneura pinguis Brachythecium rivulare

Bartsia alpina Anthoxanthum odoratum Bryum pseudotriquetrum

Bellidiastrum michelii Arabis alpina Cardamine rivularis

Brachythecium rivulare Bryum pseudotriquetrum Cirsium appendiculatum

Bryum pseudotriquetrum Bryum weigelii Dactylorhiza cordigera s.l.

Bryum schleicheri Campylium stellatum Epilobium nutans

Campanula scheuchzeri Cerastium fontanum Juncus articulatus

Campylium stellatum Cratoneuron filicinum Palustriella commutata s.l.

Carex davalliana Epilobium alsinifolium Palustriella decipiens

Carex ferruginea Geum rivale Parnassia palustris

Cirsium spinosissimum Chaerophyllum hirsutum Pinguicula balcanica

Cratoneuron filicinum Palustriella commutata s.l. Plantago gentianoides

Deschampsia cespitosa Palustriella decipiens Primula farinosa s.l.

Drepanocladus cossonii Persicaria bistorta Saxifraga rotundifolia

Epilobium alsinifolium Poa alpina Silene pusilla

Hippochaete variegata Pohlia nutans Viola biflora

Juncus triglumis Ranunculus repens

Ligusticum mutellina Rhizomnium magnifolium

Luzula alpinopilosa Rhizomnium pseudopunctatum

Molinia caerulea s.l. Rhodiola rosea

Oncophorus virens Rumex alpestris

Palustriella commutata s.l. Silene pusilla

Palustriella decipiens Swertia perennis

Parnassia palustris

Peucedanum ostruthium

Philonotis calcarea

Pinguicula alpina

Poa alpina

Pohlia wahlenbergii

Primula farinosa

Rhizomnium pseudopunctatum

Saxifraga aizoides

Saxifraga stellaris

Soldanella alpina

Tussilago farfara

Viola biflora

Calcifuge species (optimum in mineral-poor habitats)

Swiss Alps W. Carpathians Bulgarian Mts

Carex echinata Adenostyles alliariae Agrostis canina

Carex nigra Agrostis canina Anthoxanthum odoratum

Juncus alpinoarticulatus Brachythecium rivulare Brachythecium rivulare

Nardus stricta Calamagrostis villosa Caltha palustris

Philonotis seriata Dicranella palustris Cardamine amara ssp. balcanica

Poa alpina Chiloscyphus polyanthos Deschampsia caespitosa

Salix herbacea Ligusticum mutellina Dicranella palustris

Scapania undulata Luzula alpinopilosa Dichodon cerastoides

Pellia neesiana Epilobium alsinifolium

Pohlia wahlenbergii Epilobium nutans

Scapania uliginosa Festuca rubra

Stellaria nemorum Chiloscyphus polyanthos

Swertia perennis Ligusticum mutellina

Veratrum album ssp. lobelianum Luzula sudetica

Viola biflora Philonotis seriata

Warnstorfia exannulata Saxifraga stellaris

Scapania undulata

Warnstorfia exannulata

Calcicole species (optimum in mineral-extremely-rich habitats)



Swiss Alps W. Carpathians Bulgarian Mts

Agrostis stolonifera Aconitum firmum Achillea clusiana

Aneura pinguis Anthoxanthum odoratum Aneura pinguis

Anthoxanthum alpinum Arabis alpina Bryum pseudotriquetrum

Arabis soyeri Archangelica officinalis Cirsium appendiculatum

Bartsia alpina Bistorta vivipara Dactylorhiza cordigera s.l.

Bellidiastrum michelii Bryum pseudotriquetrum Juncus articulatus

Bryum pseudotriquetrum Caltha palustris Palustriella commutata s.l.

Bryum schleicheri Carex nigra Palustriella decipiens

Bryum weigelii Cerastium fontanum Parnassia palustris

Caltha palustris Deschampsia cespitosa Pinguicula balcanica

Campanula scheuchzeri Epilobium alsinifolium Plantago gentianoides

Campylium stellatum Chaerophyllum hirsutum Primula farinosa s.l.

Carex davalliana Oreogeum montanum Saxifraga rotundifolia

Carex flava Palustriella commutata s.l. Silene pusilla

Cirsium spinosissimum Palustriella commutata s.l. Silene pusilla

Cratoneuron filicinum Palustriella decipiens Veratrum album ssp. lobelianum

Deschampsia cespitosa Poa alpina Viola biflora

Dicranella palustris Pohlia nutans

Epilobium alsinifolium Ranunculus repens

Hippochaete variegata Rhizomnium magnifolium

Euphrasia minima Rumex alpestris

Gentiana bavarica Senecio subalpinus

Juncus triglumis Silene pusilla

Ligusticum mutellina Soldanella carpatica

Molinia caerulea s.l.

Oncophorus virens

Palustriella commutata s.l.

Palustriella decipiens

Parnassia palustris

Philonotis calcarea

Phleum rhaeticum

Pinguicula alpina

Plantago alpina

Primula farinosa

Saxifraga aizoides



Soldanella alpina

Trifolium badium


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