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DE–8997

11

DISTANCE EDUCATION

M.Sc. (Botany) (Specialization – Plant Biotechnology) DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY 2010.

PLANT DIVERSITY

(2008 onwards)

Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks

Answer any FIVE questions.

Each question carries 20 marks.



  1. (a) Give the outline of Smith’s system of classification of algae. (7)

(b) What are heterocysts? Discuss their role in nitrogen fixation. (6)

(c) Give an account of the culture of marine algae. (7)



  1. (a) Describe the spore dispersal mechanisms in Asocomycetes. (6)

(b) Describe the asexual reproduction in Phycomycetes.
(7)

(c) Enumerate the general characteristics of Deuteromycotina. (7)



  1. (a) Describe the anatomy of lichen thallus. (6)

(b) Bring out the classification of Bryophytes that you have studied. (7)

(c) Describe the gametophytes of Andreales. (7)



  1. (a) Give an account of the life cycle in Pteropsida. (7)

(b) What is alternation of generation? Describe it in Lycopsida. (7)

(c) Outline Reimer’s system of classification for Pteridophytes. (6)



  1. (a) Write notes on Medullosa. (6)

(b) Bring out the angiospermic characters of Gnetales.
(7)

(c) Describe the morphology of Ginkgo. (7)



  1. (a) Describe the structure and function of haustorium in fungi. (6)

(b) Describe the thallus organization in Phaeophyceae.
(7)

(c) Describe the gametophores of Marchantiales. (7)



  1. (a) Describe the salient features of Cycadales. (6)

(b) Explain the tetraspore formation in Rhodophyceae.
(7)

(c) Describe the sexual reproduction of mycobiont in lichen. (7)



  1. (a) Describe the life cycle pattern in Pteropsida. (7)

(b) Comment on Caytonia. (6)

(c) Explain apothecium with suitable example. (7)

–––––––––––––––


DE–8998



12

DISTANCE EDUCATION

M.Sc. (Botany (Specialization Plant Biotechnology)) DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY 2010.

PLANT TAXONOMY

(2008 onwards)

Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks

Answer any FIVE questions.

Each question carries 20 marks.



  1. (a) Mention the scope and applications of plant taxonomy. (7)

(b) Comment on species concept. (6)

(c) What are the theories proposed for biological classification? (7)



  1. (a) Classify the division Polypetalae of Bentham and Hooker. (6)

(b) State the principles used in Engler and Prantl system of classification. (6)

(c) Give an outline of the Takhtajan classification. (8)



  1. (a) What is the difference between artificial and natural classification? (6)

(b) Describe the importance of binomial nomenclature.
(8)

(c) Comment on author citation. (6)



  1. (a) Give an account of numerical taxonomy. (8)

(b) Briefly describe the types of floristic study. (6)

(c) Describe the modern interdisciplinary approaches to taxonomy. (6)



  1. (a) Describe the salient features of Ranunculaceae. (7)

(b) State the distinguishing features of Rhamnaceae. (7)

(c) Describe the pollination mechanism in Orchidaceae.


(6)

  1. (a) Brief the outline of Hutchinson’s classification. (6)

(b) Explain tautonym with examples. (7)

(c) Describe chemotaxonomy. (7)



  1. (a) Distinguish between Loranthaceae. (6)

(b) Enumerate the principles of priority. (7)

(c) How will you draft biocode? (7)



  1. (a) What is ecotype? Explain it with examples. (7)

(b) State the advanced characters of Orchidaceae. (6)

(c) Write about the molecular systematics. (7)

–––––––––––––––


DE–8999



13

DISTANCE EDUCATION

M.Sc. (Botany) (Specialisation Plant Biotechnology) DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY 2010.

ANATOMY AND EMBRYOLOGY

(2008 onwards)

Time : Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

Answer any FIVE questions.

Each question carries 20 marks.

Draw diagram wherever necessary.


  1. (a) Give a general account on apical meristems. (8)

(b) Comment upon evolutionary trends in tracheary elements. (7)

(c) What is storied vascular cambium? Add a note on its activity. (5)



  1. (a) Explain the phylogenetic significance of floral vasculature. (8)

(b) Narrate the important features of Root stem transition zone. (5)

(c) How vascular differentiation occurs in leaf? (7)



  1. (a) Enumerate and explain the uses of wood. (6)

(b) What are knots? Explain. (6)

(c) Describe compression wood and explain its significance in plants. (8)



  1. (a) Describe the development of an anther. (8)

(b) Explain the types of endosperm. (7)

(c) Describe the structure of a matured embryo sac. (5)



  1. (a) What is apospory? Explain it with examples. (8)

(b) Explain the significance of polyembryoni in plant improvement. (5)

(c) Enumerate the molecular aspect of higher plant reproduction. (7)



  1. (a) Explain the structure and significance of transfer cells. (6)

(b) What are the structural diversity in phloem? (8)

(c) How primary vascular differentiation occurs in stem? (6)



  1. (a) Name any four commercial wood of South India. Explain their importance in the wealth of India. (7)

(b) At molecular level how the wood is differentiated. (7)

(c) Describe pollen morphology. (6)



  1. (a) How the embryo sac is nurished? (7)

(b) What are the importances of pollen stigma incompatibility? (7)

(c) Describe Agamospory. (6)

–––––––––––––––


DE–9000



14

DISTANCE EDUCATION

M.Sc. (Botany) (Specialization) DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY 2010.

Plant Biotechnology

PLANT TISSUE CULTURE

(2008 onwards)

Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks

Answer any FIVE questions.

Each question carries 20 marks.


  1. (a) Explain steam and dry sterilization of culture media and apparatus. (10)

(b) Comment on the role of hormones in plant regeneration. (5)

(c) Enumerate the procedure involved in meristem culture. (5)



  1. (a) Describe the protocols involved in the culture of anther. (8)

(b) What is meant by toti potency. Explain in detail. (5)

(c) List out the applications of micropropagation. (7)



  1. (a) Mention the significance of haploids. (8)

(b) Describe the procedure involved in ovule culture. (8)

(c) Explain the mechanism involved in obtaining somoclonal variation with out in vitro selection. (4)



  1. (a) Give a concise account on the method involved in the production of artificial seeds. (8)

(b) How will you establish and maintain callus in tissue culture? (7)

(c) Mention the types of explants used for commercial micropropagation. (5)



  1. (a) What is embryo rescue? Mention its application. (7)

(b) How will you produce virus free plants? (7)

(c) Enumerate the procedure involved in the suspension culture of any dicot plant you have studied. (6)



  1. (a) Give a concise account on the isolation of protoplast by enzymatic method. (8)

(b) Give a short list of secondary metabolites obtained from plant cell culture along with their application.
(8)

(c) Describe any culture technique employed for rescuing embryo. (4)



  1. (a) Define organogenesis. Write notes on indirect organogenesis. (6)

(b) Give a concise account on pollen culture. (7)

(c) Mention the applications of somoclonal variation. (7)



  1. (a) Describe the composition and preparation of any one nutrient media used for solid culture. (7)

(b) Describe the protocols employed in root tip culture.
(6)

(c) Explain the procedure involved in somatic embryo production. (7)

——————


DE-9001



15

DISTANCE EDUCATION

M.Sc. (Botany) (Specialization - Plant Bio-Technology) DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY 2010.

PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

(2008 onwards)

Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks

Answer any FIVE questions.

Each question carries 20 marks.



  1. (a) Describe the nuclear genome of a plant. (8)

(b) Give an account on mitochondrial DNA. (7)

(c) Briefly describe the mechanism of DNA amplification. (5)



  1. (a) What are the structural features of a plant gene? (8)

(b) Write notes on the control sequences in plant gene.
(6)

(c) Give a short account on expression of nuclear gene.


(6)

  1. (a) Explain the concept of cytoplasmic male sterility. (7)

(b) Give the classification of seed storage protein. (9)

(c) What are the functions of seed storage protein? (4)



  1. (a) What is meant by translation? Explain. (8)

(b) What are the post translational modifications. (4)

(c) What are the types of plant transposons? Explain.


(8)

  1. (a) What are the applications of T-DNA in genetic engineering? (5)

(b) Write briefly on Ti-Plasmid. (7)

(c) Give an account on binary vectors. (8)



  1. Write notes on :

(a) Salinity stress. (8)

(b) Molecular biology of plant stress response. (5)

(c) Silicon carbide whisker. (7)


  1. (a) Describe the direct gene transformation methods in plants. (10)

(b) Give a short note on ultrasonication method of gene transfer. (5)

(c) Explain the stress response of plants to UV. (5)



  1. (a) Describe different methods of isolation of DNA to be cloned. (8)

(b) Give an account on Tagging. (6)

(c) Explain briefly on mapping. (6)

———————


DE–9002



21

DISTANCE EDUCATION

M.Sc. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY 2010.

Botany (Specialisation Plant Biotechnology)

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY

(2008 onwards)

Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks

Answer any FIVE questions.

Each question carry equal marks.


  1. (a) Write briefly about the chemical and water potential. (7)

(b) Describe the water transport through tracheids and xylem. (7)

(c) Explain the mechanism of stomatal movement. (6)



  1. (a) Describe the ultra structure of photosynthetic apparatus. (6)

(b) Give an account on photophosphorylation. (7)

(c) Compare C4 carbon cycle and CAM. (7)



  1. (a) Write an account on TCA cycle. (6)

(b) Explain the pentose phosphate pathway (6)

(c) Discuss biological nitrogen fixation in detail. (8)



  1. (a) Write briefly giving examples about stereoisomers, enantiomers and epimers. (6)

(b) Describe the alpha helix and beta sheet of the protein molecule. (8)

(c) Discuss about the peptide bond and the polypeptide chain. (6)



  1. (a) Explain the Michaelis-Menton equation and its significance. (6)

(b) Discuss the biosynthesis of fatty acids. (7)

(c) Give an account on the allosteric mechanism. (7)



  1. (a) Describe the factors affecting transpiration. (6)

(b) Explain the electron transport pathway in chloroplast membranes. (6)

(c) Explain the process which takes place in mitochondria and is the major source of ATP in aerobic organisms. (8)



  1. (a) Explain the structure of polysaccharides and add a note on how it is formed. (7)

(b) Write briefly about the aminoacid synthesis. (7)

(c) Describe the classification of enzymes. (6)



  1. (a) Describe the nucleotide synthesis. (6)

(b) Write short notes on nitrate and ammonia assimilation. (6)

(c) Give an account on classification and structure of lipids. (8)


————————


DE–9003



22

DISTANCE EDUCATION

M.Sc. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY 2010.

Botany Specialization Plant Bio technology)

CELL BIOLOGY, GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING

(2008 onwards)

Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks

Answer any FIVE questions.

Each question carries 20 marks.


  1. (a) Describe the similarity between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. (7)

(b) Describe the structure of function of Nucleus. (7)

(c) Enumerate the functions of Cytoskeleton. (6)



  1. (a) Describe the types of membrane proteins. (7)

(b) Explain the prophase stage of meiosis. (6)

(c) Explain the protein sorting in mitochondria. (7)



  1. (a) Explain cytoplasmic inheritance. (6)

(b) Describe sexlinked inheritance. (6)

(c) Explain the origin and induction of prions. (8)



  1. (a) Describe the role of MNNG in mutation. (6)

(b) Write short notes on population genetics. (7)

(c) Write notes on origin of polyploidy. (7)



  1. (a) Describe the applications of mutation in breeding disease resistant plant. (6)

(b) Explain the role of genetic variation in plant breeding. (7)

(c) Describe the breeding methods for cross pollinating plants. (7)



  1. (a) Describe the structure of golgai complex. (6)

(b) Describe the functions of mitochondria and Lysosome. (8)

(c) Write short notes on basic functions of a membrane. (6)



  1. (a) Write notes on G and M phase of cell cycle. (7)

(b) Write notes on cytoplasmic male sterility. (7)

(c) Explain Back cross. (6)



  1. (a) Describe Inbreeding depression theories. (6)

(b) Comment on ‘Hybrid vigour’. (7)

(c) Enumerate the applications of poly ploidy. (7)

—————


23



DE–9004

DISTANCE EDUCATION

M.Sc. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY 2010.

Botany Specialization Plant Bio-technology

BIOTECHNIQUES IN BOTANY

(2008 onwards)

Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks

Answer any FIVE questions.

Each question carries 20 marks.


  1. (a) Write about Native PAGE. (7)

(b) 2DE–Explain. (8)

(c) Trypsin digestion – Define. (5)



  1. (a) Ultra centrifugation– Give short notes. (5)

(b) Give brief account on TEM. (8)

(c) Confocal Microscope – Explain. (7)



  1. (a) HPTLC–Write short notes. (8)

(b) MS/MS–Describe. (7)

(c) MALDI-TOF-Give short notes. (5)



  1. (a) PCR-Define. (7)

(b) Write about principles of Blotting. (8)

(c) Explain about DNA finger printing. (5)



  1. (a) Southern Hybridization–Define. (8)

(b) AFLP–Write short notes. (7)

(c) Give short notes on gene specific sequences. (5)



  1. (a) Write about the applications of radio labeling. (7)

(b) Describe principles of Radio active isotopes. (8)

(c) Narrate liquid scintillation. (5)



  1. (a) Microarray–define. (5)

(b) Write about basis of Bioinformatics. (8)

(c) Give any two tools to analyse plant genome. (7)



  1. (a) Relationship between Transcriptome and Proteome.
    (8)

(b) Write about Expression of Tracking genes. (7)

(c) Explain BLAST. (5)

————————


DE–9005



24

DISTANCE EDUCATION

M.Sc. DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY 2010.

Botany (Specialization Plant Biotechnology)

BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND IPR

(2008 onwards)

Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks

Answer any FIVE questions.

Each question carries 20 marks.

Draw diagram wherever necessary.



  1. (a) Define biodiversity and explain its types. (8)

    (b) Comment on Centres of diversity. (4)

(c) Discuss agrodiversity with examples. (8)

  1. (a) Narrate the values and uses of biodiversity. (6)

    (b) Discuss Biodiveristy Act of India 2002 and 2004. (6)

(c) Describe phytogeographic regions in India. (8)

  1. (a) Narrate the vegetation types of India and Tamil Nadu. (8)

    (b) Define endemism and discuss its types with examples. (6)

(c) Comment on hotspot biodiversity areas in India. (6)

  1. (a) Write in detail about wildlife sanctuaries and national parks. (10)

    (b) Discuss about biosphere reserves. (5)

(c) Write in detail about Red Data Book and its relevance in conservation. (5)

  1. (a) Give an account on the threatened plants and animals of India. (10)

    (b) Comment on patenting of life forms. (4)

(c) Patenting of life forms – an advantage or a disadvantages – Discuss. (6)

  1. (a) Write in detail about biotechnology assisted plant conservation. (8)

    (b) Discuss biodiversity conservation and define sustainable use. (6)

(c) Expand GATT and WTO and their role in biodiversity conservation. (6)

  1. (a) Discuss about different types of IPR. (10)

    (b) Comment on copy right and its implications. (4)

(c) Plant Breeder’s rights – whether relevant or irrelevant – Discuss. (6)

  1. (a) Explain the details of patent application, its major types and its implications in Basmati rice and Turmeric. (12)

    (b) Define GM food and discuss it implications. (4)

(c) Comment on GLP. (4)

————————



DE–9006

25

DISTANCE EDUCATION

M.Sc. (Botany/Specialization Plant Biotechnology) DEGREE EXAMINATION, MAY 2010.

PLANT GENETIC ENGINEERING

(2008 onwards)

Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks

Answer any FIVE questions.

Each question carries 20 marks.



  1. (a) Briefly describe the recent development in plant genetic engineering. (6)

(b) Explain plant genome project with reference to Arabidopsis. (10)

(c) Comment on ‘Vir’ genes. (4)



  1. (a) Write notes on heterologous promoters. (6)

(b) Describe PEG mediated transformation. (5)

(c) Write notes on rpt II gene in plant transformation.


(9)

  1. (a) Write notes on Ti plasmid. (7)

(b) Explain the process of T-DNA transfer. (8)

(c) Describe biolistic gene transfer. (5)



  1. (a) Write notes on Bt-based genetic modification of plants. (7)

(b) Comment on Advantages of cytoplasmic male sterility in genetic Engineering. (6)

(c) Explain the role of protease inhibitor gene in pest resistance. (7)



  1. (a) Write short notes on gene silencing. (7)

(b) Write any one method to identify the genetic diversity. (6)

(c) Explain briefly the advantages of chloroplast genetic engineering. (7)



  1. (a) Describe the promoter elements used to drive light regulator gene expression. (6)

(b) Write notes on ‘cry’ genes. (6)

(c) Explain why Arabidopsis is used as a model plant biotechnology. (8)



  1. (a) Write short notes on basic features of vectors for plant transformation. (6)

(b) Write short notes on Inducible promoters. (7)

(c) Describe the role of selectable markers in transformation with one or two example. (7)



  1. (a) Write short notes on ‘GUS’ gene. (6)

(b) Describe the biotechnological approaches to protect a plant against fungal pathogens. (8)

(c) Write short notes on ‘ribozymes’ (6)



———————



DE–8997



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