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Diagnostic host index


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DIAGNOSTIC HOST INDEX

This index serves in lieu of keys to insects and their damage. It provides a means of narrowing the search for the identity of an insect observed on a particular host.

Primary arrangement of this index is alphabetical by scientific names of trees and shrubs according to Little (1953) supple­mented by Kelsey and Dayton (1942) ; common names are cross-referenced to scientific names. Under a host species, the first grouping is according to part of plant infested. Under the part infested, insects are listed alphabetically by scientific name ac­cording to habit or type of insect.

The procedure in using this index thus involves the following steps : (1) Identifying the host tree or shrub, (2) determining the part or parts fed upon, (3) consulting the habit groups to see which one most closely describes the insect, and (4) referring to the text pages on which insects in the selected habit group are discussed in order to decide which description best fits the insect or sample of damage in hand.

Many insects infest more than one tree part. In some, the habit group changes with the tree part ; in others it remains the same. With some boring or sucking insects, bark thickness may deter­mine whether the bole or a branch is attacked. The Diagnostic Host Index attempts to cover most of this variation. Designation of plant parts on shrubby host species is as for trees, with bole indicating the stem, and the difference between twigs and branches versus large limbs based on relative size.

Many insects have similar habits and look very much alike. The taxonomic references in this manual will aid in distinguishing closely related species. For positive identification, one should sub­mit specimens to experts.

Abies (fir): Abies (fir)—Continued

Flowers Cones and seeds—Continued

Thrips Moths, cone—Continued

Frankliniella occidentalis, 78 Dioryctria pseudotsugella, 185

Cones and seeds Dioryctria reniculelloidee, 185

Gall former Epinotia hopkinsana, 145

Dasineura abiesemia, 419 Eucosma siskiyouana, 146

Loopers, cone Laspeyresia bracteatana, 148

Eupithecia columbrata, 204 Foliage, on

Eupithecia spermaphaga, 204 Beetles, leaf

Maggots, cone Glyptoscelis septentrionalis, 318

Earomyia abietum, 426 Syneta carinata, 320

Earomyia barbara, 426 Beetles, scarab

Moths, cone Dichelonyx backi, 247

Barbara colfaxiana, 143 Dichelonyx valida, 247

Commophila fuscodorsana, 162 Budworms

Dioryctria abietivorella, 181 Acleris gloverana, 163

569


Abies (fir)—Continued

Foliage, on—Continued

Budworms—Continued

Choristoneura spp., 168

Caterpillar

Orgyia antiqua, 223

Loopers

Caripeta angustiorata, 202 Caripeta divisata, 202

Ectropis crepuscularia, 202 Enypia packardata, 203

Enypia venata, 203

Epirrita autumnata omissa, 203 Epirrita pulchraria, 204 Eupithecia annulata, 204 Eupithecia luteata, 204 Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria,

205

Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa,

205

Melanolophia imitata, 209 Neoalcis californiaria, 210 Nepytia phantasmaria, 212 Nepytia umbrosaria nigrovenaria,

213

Nyctobia limitaria, 213 Semiothisa signaria dispuncta,

216

Mite, spider

Oligonychus ununguis, 61

Sawflies

Neodiprion abietis var., 441 Neodiprion scutellatus, 444

Sawfly, wehspinning

Acantholyda balanata, 435

Seale

Stramenaspis kelloggi, 119 Weevils

Hylobius pinicola, 326

Hylobius warreni, 326

Foliage, in Miners, needle

Coleotechnites granti, 177 Epinotia meritana, 145

Buds and shoots, on

Aphid

Adelges piceae, 107

Buds and shoots, in

Budworms

Acleris glovorana, 163 Choristoneura spp., 168 Dioryctria abietivorella, 181 ' Dioryctria pseudotsugella, 185 Dioryctria reniculelloides, 185

Moths, bud

Epinotia hopkinsana, 145 Zeiraphera spp., 160

Moth, tip

Griselda radicana, 147

Sawflies

Pleroneura brunneicornis, 437

570

Abies (fir)—Continued

Buds and shoots in—Continued Sawflies—Continued

Pleroneura californica, 437 Pleroneura spp., 436

Xyelicia spp., 436

Twigs and small branches, on Aphids

Adelges piceae, 107

Cinara curvipes, 96

Spittlebug

Aphrophora permutata, 89

Twigs and small branches, under bark Beetles, bark

Phloeotribus lecontei, 369 Pit yokteines elegans, 400 Pityokteines minutus, 400 Pityophthorus pseudotsugae, 402 Scolytus praeceps, 406

Moth, twig

Dioryctria abietivorella, 181 Twigs and small branches, in wood Borers, roundheaded

Callidium pseudotsugae, 299 Neoclytus muricatulus, 302 Phyrnatodes maculicollis, 303 Poliaenus oregonus, 313

Trunk and large branches, on

Aphid

Adelges piceae, 107

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetles, bark

Dolurgus pumilus, 378 Dryocoetes a ffaber, 378 Dryocoetes autographus, 378 Dryocoetes confusus, 380 Hylastes nigrinus, 364 Pseudohylesinus granulatus, 371 Pseudohylesinus sericeus, 372 Scolytus abietis, 405

Scolytus opacus, 405

Scolytus piceae, 406

Scolytus tsugae, 407

Scolytus unispinosus, 408 Scolytus ventralis, 409 Scolytus wickhami, 408

Borer, flatheaded

Melanophila drummondi, 263

Borers, roundheaded Acanthocinus pusillus, 309 Callidium cicatricosum, 299 Pseudastylopsis nebulosus, 313 Rhagium inquisitor, 297 Semanotus litigiosus, 305 Tetropium abietis, 293 Tetropium velutinum, 294

Trunk and large branches, in wood

Ants, carpenter

Camponotus spp., 472 Beetles, ambrosia

Gnathotrichus denticulatus, 382

Abies (fir)—Continued

Trunks and large branches, in wood—Continued

Beetles, ambrosia—Continued Gnathotrichus sulcatus, 381 Platypus wilsoni, 338 Trypodendron lineatum, 411 Xyleborus saxeseni, 413

Beetles, powderpost Hemicoelus gibbicollis, 270 Hemicoelus umbrosus, 270 Stephanopachys substriatus, 275

Borers, flatheaded

Buprestis adjecta, 258 Buprestis aurulenta, 257 Buprestis lecontei, 259 Chalcophora angulicollis, 259 Chrysophana placida, 261 Dicerca tenebrosa, 262 Trachykele nimbosa, 266

Borers, roundheaded Acmaeops proteus, 295 Arhopalus productus, 291 Asemum caseyi, 292 Asemum nitidum, 292 Asemum striatum, 292 Callidium cicatricosum, 299 Callidium pseudotsugae, 299 Ergates spiculatus, 288 Hylotrupes bajulus, 300 Leptura obliterata, 296 Megasemum asperum, 293 Meriellum proteus, 301 Monochamus obtusus, 311 Monochamus scutellatus, 310 Neoclytus muricatulus, 302 Opsimus quadrilineatus, 303 Pachyta lamed, 297 Prionus californicus, 289 Ulochaetes leoninus, 297 Xylotrechus albonotatus, 308

H or n tails

Urocerus gigas flavicornis, 457 Xeris morrisoni, 457 Weevils, sapwood

Rhyncolus brunneus, 334 Rhyncolus macrops, 334 Rhyncolus oregonensis, 334

Roots, on

Ant, carpenter

Camponotus herculeanus modoc, 473

Beetle

Hylastes nigrinus, 364 Weevils, root

Hylobius pinicola, 326 Hylobius warreni, 326 Roots, under bark

Beetles, bark



Dryocoetes autographus, 378 Hylastes nigrinus, 364 Pseudohylesinus granulatus, 371

Abies (fir)—Continued

Roots, under bark—Continued Weevils, root-collar



Hylobius pinicola, 326 Hylobius warreni, 326 Pissodes dubius, 332 Steremnius carinatus, 336 Steremnius tuberosus, 336

Roots, in wood

Borers, roundheaded

Prionus californicus, 289

Ulochaetes leoninus, 297 Abies amabilis (Pacific silver fir): Cones and seeds

Chalcids, seed



Megastigmus lasiocarpae, 468 Megastigmus pinus, 468 Foliage, on

Aphid


Mindarus abietinus, 99 Budworms

Acleris gloverana, 163 Choristoneura orae, 169 Looper

Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa, 205

Sawfly


Neodiprion tsugae, 444 Foliage, in

Miner, needle



Epinotia tsugana, 146 Buds and shoots, on

Aphids


Adelges piceae, 107

Mindarus abietinus, 99 Buds and shoots, in

Budworms


Acleris gloverana, 163 Choristoneura orae, 169 Moth, bud

Zeiraphera destitutana, 161 Twigs and small branches, on Aphid

Adelges piceae, 107

Weevil


Cylindrocopturus furnissi, 324 Twigs and small branches, under bark Beetle, bark

Cryphalus ruficollis, 377 Beetle, twig

Pityophthorus pseudotsugae, 402 Weevil, twig

Cylindrocopturus furnissi, 324 Twigs and small branches, in wood Weevil, twig

Cylindrocopturus furnissi, 324 Trunk and large branches, on Aphids

Adages piceae, 107

Pineus abietinus, 108

571


Abies amabilis (Pacific silver fir)—Con. Trunk and large branches, in bark Beetle, bark

Pseudohylesinus tsugae, 374 Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetles, bark

Cryphalus ruficollis, 377 Pseudohylesinus nobilis, 372 Pseudohylesinus sericeus, 372 Pseudohylesinus tsugae, 374

Borer, flatheaded



Melanophila drummondi, 263 Trunk and large branches, in wood Beetle, ambrosia

Gnathotrichus sulcatus, 381 Horntail

Urocerus albicornis, 457 Abies balsamea (balsam fir): Foliage, on

Budworm


Choristoneura fumiferana, 171 Buds and shoots, in

Budworm


Choristoneura fumiferana, 171 Abies bracteata (bristlecone fir):

Trunk and large branches, under bark

Beetle, bark

Scolytus dentatus, 405 Abies concolor (white fir): Cones and seeds

Chalcids, seed



Megastigmus pinus, 468 Megastigmus rafni, 468 Maggots, cone

Earomyia abietum, 426 Earomyia barbara, 426 Hylemya abietis, 428

Moths, cone



Barbara colfaxiana, 143 Dioryctria abietivorella, 181 Eucosma siskiyouana, 146

Foliage, on

Aphids

Essigella pergandei, 99 Mindarus abietinus, 99 Budworms

Acleris gloverana, 163 Choristoneura occidentalis, 168 Choristoneura viridis, 173

Caterpillars



Halisidota argentata, 216 Orgyia pseudotsugata, 224 Cutworm

Euxoa excellens, 232 Leaf tiers

Argyrotaenia dorsalana, 166 Argyrotaenia provana, 166 Parapandemis borealis, 174

Loopers


Galenara consimilis, 205 Nepytia freemani, 211

Abies concolor (white fir)—Continued Foliage, on—Continued Loopers—Continued

Nepytia phantasmaria, 212 Sawfly

Neodiprion abietis var., 441 Sawflies, webspinning

Acantholyda atrata, 435 Acantholyda bucephala, 435 Weevils

Agronus cinerarius, 321 Thricolepis inornata, 336

Foliage, in

Miners, needle

Choristoneura occidentalis, 168 Choristoneura viridis, 173 Epinotia meritana, 145

Buds and shoots, on

Aphid

Mindarus abietinus, 99

Buds and shoots, in

Budworms

Acleris gloverana, 163 Choristoneura occidentalis, 168 Choristoneura viridis, 173

Moth, bud



Zeiraphera improbana, 161 Sawfly

Xyelicia nearctica, 437

Twigs and small branches, on Aphid

Cinara occidentalis, 96

Mealybug


Puto cupressi, 125

Weevil


Cylindrocopturus furnissi, 324 Twigs and small branches, under bark Beetles, bark

Scolytus obelus, 406

Scolytus oregoni, 406

Scolytus praeceps, 406

Scolytus robustus, 406

Scolytus subscaber, 407

Weevil, twig



Cylindrocopturus furnissi, 324 Twigs and small branches, in wood Borer, roundheaded

Dicentrus bluthneri, 299

Weevil, twig



Cylindrocopturus furnissi, 324 Trunk and large branches, on Mealybug

Puto cupressi, 125

Scale


Diaspidiotus ehrhorni, 116 Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetles, bark

Hylurgops porosus, 365 Pseudohylesinus dispar, 371 Pseudohylesinus maculosus, 372

572


Abies concolor (white fir)—Continued Trunk and large branches, under bark —Continued

Beetles, bark—Continued


Scolytus abietis, 405

Scolytus ventralis, 409 Borer, roundheaded

Tetropium abietis, 293 Maggot, bark

Cheilosia hoodiana, 426 Weevil

Pissodes burkei, 331

Trunk and large branches, in wood Beetle, ambrosia



Platypus abietis, 338

Borer, roundheaded



Arhopalus asperatus, 291 Horntails

Sirex areolatus, 456

Sirex cyaneus, 456

Sirex longicauda, 456 Urocerus californicus, 457 Xeris morrisoni, 457

Roots, on

Ants, carpenter

Camponotus spp., 472 Roots, under bark

Beetle, bark



Hylurgops porosus, 365 Abies grandis (grand fir):

Cones and seeds

Chalcids, seed

Megastigmus milleri, 468 Megastigmus pinus, 468 Megastigmus rafni, 468

Maggot, cone



Earomyia abietum, 426 Moth, cone

Dioryctria abietivorella, 181 Eucosma siskiyouana, 146 Foliage, on

Aphid


Mindarus abietinus, 99 Budworms

Acleris gloverana, 163 Choristoneura occidentalis, 168 Caterpillars

Halisidota argentata, 216 Orgyia pseudotsugata, 224 Leaf tier

Promylea linigerella, 186 Looper

Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa, 205

Sawfly


Neodiprion deleoni, 444 Sawfly, webspinning

Acantholyda sp., 43

Webworm


Halisidota argentata, 216

Abies grandis (grand fir)—Continued Foliage, in

Miners, needle



Choristoneura occidentalis, 168 Epinotia meritana, 145

Buds and shoots, on

Aphid

Adelges piceae, 107 Buds and shoots, in Budworms

Acleris gloverana, 163 Choristoneura occidentalis, 168 Twigs and small branches, on

Aphids


Adelges piceae, 107 Cinara occidentalis, 96

Twigs and small branches, under bark

Beetles, bark

Cryphalus pubescens, 377 Cryphalus ruficollis, 377

Scolytus robustus, 406 Scolytus subscaber, 407

Moth, pitch nodule Petrova picicolana, 152

Weevil, twig

Cylindrocopturus sp., 323

Trunk and large branches, on

Aphids

Adelges piceae, 107 Pineus abietinus, 108

Trunk and large branches, under bark

Beetles, bark

Cryphalus pubescens, 377 Cryphalus ruficollis, 377 Pseudohylesinus dispar, 371 Pseudohylesinus nobilis, 372 Scolytus abietis, 405 Scolytus fiskei, 409 Scolytus ventralis, 409

Maggot, bark



Cheilosia hoodiana, 426

Trunk and large branches, in wood Beetle, powderpost



Xestobium abietis, 272 Horntails

Xeris morrisoni, 457 Xeris spectrum, 457 Roots, on

Beetles, scarab



Pleocoma simi, 249 Polyphylla decemlineata, 250

Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir):

Cones and seeds

Chalcids, seed

Megastigmus lasiocarpae, 468 Megastigmus pinus, 468

Foliage, on

Aphid

Mindarus abietinus, 99

573
Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir)—Con. Foliage, on—Continued Budworms



Acleris gloverana, 163 Choristoneura biennis, 170 Choristoneura occidentalis, 168

Caterpillar



Orgyia pseudotsugata, 224 Looper

Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa, 205

Buds and shoots, on

Aphids

Adelges piceae, 107

Mindarus abietinus, 99

Buds and shoots, in

Budworms

Choristoneura biennis, 170 Choristoneura occidentalis, 168 Moth, bud

Zeiraphera destitutana, 161 Twigs and small branches, on Aphids

Adelges piceae, 107

Cinara occidentalis, 96 Mealybug

Puto cupressi, 125

Twigs and small branches, under bark Beetles, bark



Cryphalus ruficollis, 377 Scolytus obelus, 406

Scolytus robustus, 406

Moth, pitch nodule



Petrova picicolana, 152

Trunk and large branches, on Aphids



Adelges piceae, 107

Pineus abietinus, 108 Mealybug

Puto cupressi, 125

Trunk and large branches, in bark Beetle, bark



Pseudohylesinus tsugae, 374 Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetles, bark

Cryphalus ruficollis, 377 Dryocoetes confusus, 380 Dryocoetes sechelti, 380 Pseudohylesinus maculosus, 372 Pseudohylesinus tsugae, 374 Scierus pubescens, 374

Scolytus opacus, 405

Weevils, bark



Pissodes burkei, 331

Pissodes similis, 333

Trunk and large branches, in wood Horntails



Sirex cyaneus, 456

Sirex juvencus, 456

Urocerus albicornis, 457

Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir)—Con. Trunk and large branches, in wood—Continued

Horntails—Continued



Urocerus californicus, 457 Xeris morrisoni, 457

Xeris spectrum, 457

Abies magnifica (California red fir): Cones and seeds

Chalcids, seed



Megastigmus pinus, 468 Megastigmus rafni, 468 Foliage, in

Miner, needle



Epinotia meritana, 145

Twigs and small branches, on Aphid



Cinara curvipes, 96

Twigs and small branches, under bark Beetles, bark



Scolytus praeceps, 406

Scolytus subscaber, 407

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetles, bark



Pseudohylesinus dispar, 371 Scolytus ventralis, 409

Borer, roundheaded



Tetropium abietis, 293

Trunk and large branches, in wood Borer, roundheaded



Arhopalus asperatus, 291 Borer, sapwood

Serropalpus substriatus, 281 Horntails

Sirex longicauda, 456

Urocerus californicus, 457 Xeris morrisoni, 457

Abies magnifica shastensis (Shasta red fir):

Cones and seeds

Chalcids, seed

Megastigmus milleri, 468 Megastigmus pinus, 468 Megastigmus rafni, 468

Maggots, cone



Earomyia spp., 426

Moth, cone



Dioryctria abietivorella, 181

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetle, bark



Scolytus ventralis, 409

Borer, roundheaded



Tetropium abietis, 293

Abies procera (noble fir):

Cones and seeds

Chalcid, seed

Megastigmus pinus, 468

Moth, cone



Dioryctria abietivorella, 181

574


Abies procera (noble fir)—Continued Foliage, on

Aphid


Adelges nüsslini, 106

Twigs and small branches, on

Aphid

Adelges nüsslini, 106

Twigs and small branches, under bark Moth, twig



Dioryctria abietivorella, 181

Trunk and large branches, on

Aphid

Adelges nüsslini, 106

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetles, bark



Pseudohylesinus dispar, 371 Pseudohylesinus nobilis, 372

Roots, on

Aphid

Prociphilus americanus, 101

Roots, under bark

Weevil, root-collar

Pissodes dubius, 332

Acacia (acacia):

Seeds


Beetles, seed

Bruchidae, 321

Twigs and small branches, in wood Girdler, twig

Oncideres pustulata, 312

Trunk and large branches, under bark Borer, flatheaded



Chrysobothris octocola, 260

Trunk and large branches, in wood Beetle, powderpost



Scobicia declivis, 274

Borer, flatheaded



Chrysobothris octocola, 260

Acacia greggii (catclaw):

Foliage, on Beetles, scarab



Diplotaxis spp., 247

Acer (maple):
Flowers

Sawflies


Xyela spp., 436

Seeds


Bugs, plant

Leptocoris rubrolineatus, 84 Leptocoris trivittatus, 83

Moths, seed



Holocera sp., 174

Proteoteras aesculana, 152

Foliage, on

Aphids

Drepanaphis acerifoliae, 96 Periphyllus americanus, 100 Periphyllus brevispinosus, 100 Periphyllus calijorniensis, 100 Periphyllus lyropictus, 100 Periphyllus testudinacea, 101

Acer (maple)—Continued Foliage, on—Continued Bugs, plant

Leptocoris rubrolineatus, 84 Leptocoris trivittatus, 83 Caterpillars

Acronicta americana, 231 Antheraea polyphemus, 192 Halisidota maculata, 218 Hemileuca eglanterina, 197 Hyalophora cecropia, 198 Hyalophora gloveri, 198 Orgyia antiqua, 223 Schizura concinna, 236

Leafhopper



Edwardsiana rosae, 93 Leaf skeletonizer

Schizura concinna, 236 Loopers

Alsophila pometaria, 199

Biston cognataria, 202 Erannis tiliaria, 204 Erannis vancouverensis, 204 Iridopsis emasculata, 205 Lambdina punctata, 208 Operophtera bruceata, 213 Operophtera occidentalis, 214

Sawfly


Cimbex americana, 439 Scales

Lecanium corni, 112 Pulvinaria innumerabilis, 113 Webworm

Hyphantria cunea, 219

Twigs and small branches, on Scales



Lecanium corni, 112 Lepidosaphes ulmi, 116 Pulvinaria innumerabilis, 113 Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, 118

Twigs and small branches, under bark

Borers, flatheaded

Chrysobothris femorata, 260 Chrysobothris mali, 260

Twigs and small branches, in wood

Borer, roundheaded

Phymatodes vulneratus, 303 Trunk and large branches, on Scale

Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, 118 Trunk and large branches, under bark Borers, flatheaded

Agrilus politus, 255 Chrysobothris femorata, 260 Chrysobothris mali, 260

Trunk and large branches, in wood

Beetle, ambrosia

Xyleborus saxeseni, 413 Beetles, powderpost

Hemicoelus gibbicollis, 270 Melalgus confertus, 273

575


Acer (maple)—Continued

Trunk and large branches, in wood--Continued

Beetles, powderpost—Continued Polycaon stoutii, 273

Ptilinus basalis, 271

Scobicia declivis, 274

Xestobium abietis, 272

Borer, flatheaded



Polycesta californica, 265

Borers, roundheaded



Plectrura spinicauda, 312

Rosalia funebris, 304

Synaphaeta guexi, 315 Carpenterworm

Prionoxystus robiniae, 132 Horntail

Tremex columba, 456

Woodwasp


Xiphydria maculata, 458

Roots, on

Weevil

Otiorhynchus ovatus, 329

Acer glabrum (Rocky Mountain maple): Foliage, on

Gall former



Eriophyes calaceris, 58

Acer macrophyllum (bigleaf maple): Seeds

Moth, seed



Proteoteras aesculana, 152 Foliage, on

Aphid


Periphyllus testudinacea, 101

Trunk and large branches, in bark

Beetle, bark Procryphalus utahensis

Trunk and large branches, in wood Beetles, powderpost



Ptilinus basalis, 271

Xestobium abietis, 272

Acer negundo (boxelder):

Seeds


Bugs, plant

Leptocoris rubrolineatus, 84 Leptocoris trivittatus, 83

Foliage, on

Aphid

Periphyllus negundinis, 101

Bugs, plant



Leptocoris rubrolineatus, 84 Leptocoris trivittatus, 83

Caterpillars



Acronicta americana, 231 Halisidota tesselaris, 219

Orgyia sp., 227

Leafrollers



Adoxophyes negundana, 165 Archips negundanus, 165 Caloptilia negundella, 134

576
Acer negundo (boxelder)—Continued Buds and shoots, in

Borer, twig

Proteoteras willingana, 152 Albizzia (silk tree):

Foliage, on

Webworm

Homadaula anisocentra, 138 Alder (Alnus):

Alnus (alder):

Flowers


Louse, jumping plant
Psylla alni, 94

Sawflies


Xyela spp., 436

Foliage, on

Aphid

Pterocallis alni, 101 Beetles, leaf

Attica ambiens, 315 Chrysomela mainensis, 317 Pyrrhalta decora carbo, 319 Pyrrhalta decora decora, 319 Pyrrhalta punctipennis, 319 Syneta albida, 320

Borer, flatheaded



Buprestis langi, 259 Bugs, lace

Corythucha padi, 83 Corythucha pergandei, 83 Caterpillars

Antheraea polyphemus, 192 Halisidota maculata, 218 Halisidota tesselaris, 219 Hyalophora euryalus, 198

Orgyia antiqua, 223 Orthosia hibisci, 232 Papilio rutulus, 240 Schizura concinna, 236

Caterpillars, tent



Malacosoma californicum, 188 Malacosoma disstria, 189

Gall former



Phytoptus laevis, 58 Leaf roller

Archips rosanus, 166 Leaf skeletonizer

Schizura concinna, 236 Leaf tiers

Rheumaptera hastata, 215 Rheumaptera subhastata, 216

Louse, jumping plant


Psylla alni, 94

Loopers


Biston cognataria, 202 Ectropis crepuscularia, 202 Erannis vancouverensis, 204 Iridopsis emasculate, 205

Lycia ursaria, 209 Operophtera bruceata, 213 Operophtera occidentalis, 214

Alnus (alder)—Continued Foliage, on Continued Sawflies

Arge clavicornis, 439 Arge pectoralis, 438 Cimbex americana, 439 Hemichroa crocea, 447 Nematus spp., 448

Trichiosoma triangulum, 439 Sawfly, leafmining

Fenusa dohrnii, 447 Scales

Lecanium corni, 112 Pulvinaria innumerabilis, 113 Stonefly

Taenionema pacifica, 66 Webworm

Hyphantria cunea, 219 Weevils

Magdalis aenescens, 328 Magdalis gracilis, 328 Foliage, in

Miners, leaf blotch



Lithocolletis alnicolella, 135 Lithocolletis incanella, 135

Twigs and small branches, on

Louse, jumping plant
Psylla alni, 94

Sawfly


Cimbex americana, 439 Scales

Lecanium corni, 112

Lepidosaphes ulmi, 116 Pulvinaria innumerabilis, 113

Spittlebug



Clastoptera obtusa, 90

Twigs and small branches, under bark Borers, flatheaded



Chrysobothris femorata, 260 Chrysobothris mali, 260 Weevils, twig

Magdalis aenescens, 328 Magdalis gracilis, 328

Twigs and small branches, in wood

Beetle, bark

Hylocurus hirtellus, 382 Borers, flatheaded

Chrysobothris femorata, 260 Chrysobothris mali, 260

Trunk and large branches, on

Scale

Xylococculus betulae, 124 Trunk and large branches, in bark Beetles, bark

Trypophloeus salicis, 378 Trypophloeus striatulus, 378

Trunk and large branches, under hark

Beetle, bark

Alniphagus aspericollis, 344 Borers, flatheaded

Agrilus burkei, 255Alnus (alder)—Continued

Trunk and large branches, under bark —Continued

Borers, flatheaded—Continued Agrilus politus, 255 Chrysobothris femorata, 260 Chrysobothris mali, 260

Weevil, bark



Cryptorhynchus lapathi, 321

Trunk and large branches, in wood Beetles, ambrosia



Gnathotrichus alni, 382 Trypodendron betulae, 412 Xyleborus saxeseni, 413

Beetles, powderpost



Hemicoelus gibbicollis, 270

Polycaon stoutii, 273

Vrilletta convexa, 272

Vrilletta decorata, 272

Borers, flatheaded



Buprestis viridisuturalis, 258 Dicerca horni, 262 Polycesta californica, 265

Borers, roundheaded Necydalis cavipennis, 296 Necydalis laevicollis, 297 Parandra marginicollis, 288 Plectrura spinicauda, 312 Rosalia funebris, 304

Moth, clearwing

Synanthedon americana, 139 Weevil

Cryptorhynchus lapathi, 321 Woodwasp

Xiphydria mellipes, 458 Roots, on

Beetle, root



Syneta albida, 320

Alnus rhombifolia (Sierra alder, white alder):

Foliage, on

Beetle, leaf

Altica ambiens, 315

Twigs and small branches, under bark Weevil, twig



Magdalis gracilis, 328

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetle, bark



Alniphagus aspericollis, 344 Borer, flatheaded

Agrilus burkei, 255

Trunk and large branches, in wood Beetle, ambrosia



Xyleborus saxeseni, 413 Alnus rubra (red alder): Foliage, on

Aphid


Pterocallis alni, 101 Beetle, leaf

Attica ambiens, 315

577


Alnus rubra (red alder)—Continued Foliage, on—Continued

Caterpillar



Xylomyges simplex, 234 Caterpillars, tent

Malacosoma californicum, 188 Malacosoma disstria, 189 Leafroller

Epinotia albangulana, 144

Sawfly


Hemichroa crocea, 447

Sawfly, woolly



Eriocampa ovata, 445

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetle, bark



Alniphagus aspericollis, 344 Trunk and large branches, in wood Beetle, ambrosia

Gnathotrichus alni, 382

Alnus sinuata (Sitka alder):

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetle, bark



Alniphagus hirsutus, 345

Alnus tenuifolia (thinleaf alder):

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetle, bark



Alniphagus hirsutus, 345 Amelanchier (serviceberry):

Foliage, on

Aphid

Eriosoma americanum, 99 Caterpillars

Datana ministra, 235

Nymphalis californica, 238 Orgyia vetusta gulosa, 226 Caterpillar, tent

Malacosoma californicum, 188 Leaf skeletonizer

Datana ministra, 235

Trunk and large branches, on

Aphid

Eriosoma americanum, 99

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetle, bark



Chaetophloeus heterodoxus, 345 Roots, on

Aphid


Eriosoma americanum, 99

Apple (Malus)



Araucaria (araucaria):

Foliage, on

Mealybug .

Dysmicoccus ryani, 125

Scale


Lindingaspis rossi, 117 Arborvitae (Thuja)

Arbutus (madrone)

Arbutus arizonicus (Arizona madrone): Twigs and small branches, under bark Beetle, bark

Liparthrum arizonicum, 366

578


Arbutus menziesii (Pacific madrone): Foliage, on

Caterpillar



Antheraea polyphemus, 192 Thrips

Thrips madronii, 79

Webworm


Hyphantria cunea, 219 Whitefly

Trialeurodes vaporariorum, 110 Foliage, in

Miners


Coptodisca arbutiella, 131 Marmara arbutiella, 136 Miner, leafblotch

Lithocolletis arbutusella, 135 Twigs and small branches, on Cicada

Platypedia minor, 89

Twigs and small branches, under bark Moth, bark



Marmara arbutiella, 136 Twigs and small branches, in wood Beetle, bark

Hylocurus hirtellus, 382

Trunk and large branches, under bark Borer, flatheaded



Agrilus arbuti, 255

Trunk and large branches, in wood Beetle, ambrosia



Xyleborus saxeseni, 413 Beetle, bark

Hylocurus hirtellus, 382 Beetles, powderpost

Melalgus confertus, 273 Polycaon stoutii, 273

Borer, flatheaded



Polycesta californica, 265 Borers, roundheaded

Centrodera spurca, 295 Necydalis laevicollis, 297 Neoclytus conjunctus, 302 Xylotrechus nauticus, 307

Roots, in wood

Borers, roundheaded

Centrodera spurca, 295 Prionus californicus, 289

Arctostaphylos (manzanita):

Foliage, on

Beetle, scarab

Serica anthracina, 252 Caterpillars

Hemileuca eglanterina, 197 Hyalophora euryalus, 198 Nymphalis californica, 238 Thrips

Thrips madronii, 79

Whitefly


Trialeurodes vaporariorum, 110

Arctostaphylos (manzanita)—Continued Trunk and large branches, under bark Borer, flatheaded

Agrilus arbuti, 255

Trunk and large branches, in wood

Beetle, powderpost Melalgus confertus, 273

Artemisia (sagebrush)

Foliage, on

Beetle, leaf

Trirhabda nitidicollis, 320 Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush): Foliage, on

Beetle, leaf



Trirhabda pilosa, 320 Caterpillar

Hemileuca hera, 196 Leaf tier

Aroga websteri, 175 Miner, leaf

Aroga websteri, 175 Ash (Fraxinus)

Ash, mountain (Sorbus) Aspen (Populus)

Azalea (Rhododendron)

Betula (birch):

Foliage, on

Aphids

Calaphis betulaecolens, 94 Euceraphis punctipennis, 99 Beetle, leaf

Phratora hudsonia, 319 Bug, lace

Corythucha pergandei, 83 Caterpillars

Acronicta americana, 231 Acronicta lepusculina, 231 Datana ministra, 235 Halisidota maculata, 218 Hemileuca eglanterina, 197 Heterocampa manteo, 235 Hyalophora cecropia, 198 Hyalophora euryalus, 198 Orgyia antiqua, 223

Orthosia hibisci, 232

Papilio rutulus, 240

Pheosia rimosa, 236

Schizura concinna, 236 Caterpillars, tent

Malacosoma .californicum, 188 Malacosoma disstria, 189 Leaf rollers

Archips argyrospilus, 165 Choristoneura rosaceana, 172 Pandemis canadana, 174

Leaf skeletonizers



Bucculatrix canadensisella, 137 Datana ministra, 235

Heterocampa manteo, 235

Schizura concinna, 236

Betula (birch)—Continued Foliage, on—Continued Leaf tiers

Rheumaptera hastata, 215 Rheumaptera subhastata, 216 Loopers

Alsophila pometaria, 199 Biston cognataria, 202

Erannis vancouverensis, 204 Lycia ursaria, 209

Operophtera bruceata, 213 Sawflies

Arge clavicornis, 439 Arge pectoralis, 438 Cimbex americana, 439

Croesus latitarsus, 445 Trichiosoma triangulum, 439

Sawflies, leafmining



Fenusa pusilla, 446 Profenusa thomsoni, 446

Twigs and small branches, on

Sawfly

Cimbex americana, 439 Scales

Lepidosaphes ulmi, 116 Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, 118

Twigs and small branches, under bark

Borers, flatheaded

Agrilus anxius, 255 Chrysobothris mali, 260

Trunk and large branches, on

Scales

Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, 118 Xylococculus betulae, 124

Trunk and large branches, under bark

Beetle, bark

Dryocoetes betulae, 380 Borers, flatheaded

Agrilus anxius, 255 Chrysobothris mali, 260 Maggot, bark

Phytobia pruinosa, 428 Weevil, bark

Cryptorhynchus lapathi, 321

Trunk and large branches, in wood Beetle, ambrosia



Trypodendron lineatum, 411 Beetle, powderpost

Hemicoelus umbrosus, 270 Horntail

Tremex columba, 456 Weevil

Cryptorhynchus lapathi, 321 Woodwasp

Xiphydria mellipes, 458 Betula occidentalis (water birch)

Twigs and small branches, under bark

Borer, flatheaded

Agrilus anxius, 255

579


Betula occidentalis (water birch)—Con. Trunk and large branches, under bark Borer, flatheaded

Agrilus anxius, 255

Birch (Betula)

Bitterbrush (Purshia)

Blueberry (Vaccinium)

Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) Bursera microphylla (elephant tree): Trunk and large branches, in bark

Beetle, bark



Cactopinus desertus, 375

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetle, bark



Cactopinus desertus, 375

California-laurel (Umbellularia californica)

California Washington-palm

(Washingtonia filifera)

Camellia (Camellia):

Foliage, on


Scale

Pulvinaria floccifera, 113 Twigs and small branches, on Scale

Pulvinaria floccifera, 113 Cascara buckthorn (Rhamnus purshiana)

Castanopsis chrysophylla (golden chinkapin):

Seeds


Moth, seed

Melissopus latiferreanus, 150

Foliage, on Caterpillar



Phryganidia californica, 220 Mite, spider

Oligonychus platani, 62

Twigs and small branches, in wood Borer, roundheaded



Phymatodes aenus, 303 Catclaw (Acacia greggii)

Ceanothus (Ceanothus)

Foliage, on Beetle, scarab



Serica anthracina, 252 Caterpillars

Hemileuca eglanterina, 197 Hyalophora euryalus, 198 Nymphalis californica, 238

Caterpillar, tent



Malacosoma californicum, 188 Thrips

Thrips madronii, 79

Whitefly


Trialeurodes vaporariorum, 110

Trunk and large branches, in wood Borer, flatheaded



Dicerca horni, 262

Cedar (Cedrus, Chamaecyparis, Libocedrus, Thuja)



Cedrus (cedar)

Foliage, on

Scale

Chionaspis pinifoliae, 115 Twigs and small branches, on Aphid

Cinara curvipes, 96

Celtis (hackberry):

Twigs and small branches, under bark Beetles, bark



Chramesus spp., 346

Cercidium (paloverde):

Seeds


Beetles, seed

Bruchidae, 321

Foliage, on

Caterpillar



Hemileuca tricolor, 196

Twigs and small branches, in wood Beetle, bark



Hylocurus parkinsoniae, 382

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetle, bark



Chaetophloeus fasciatus, 345 Borer, flatheaded

Chrysobothris octocola, 260

Trunk and large branches, in wood Borer, flatheaded



Chrysobothris octocola, 260 Cercocarpus (cercocarpus, mountain-mahogany) :

Foliage, on

Caterpillar, tent

Malacosoma californicum, 188 Leaf roller

Ethmia discostrigella, 175 Looper

Anacamptodes clivinaria profanata, 200

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetle, bark



Chaetophloeus heterodoxus, 345 Trunk and large branches, in wood Borers, flatheaded

Dicerca horni, 262

Polycesta californica, 265 Cereus giganteus (saguaro):

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetle, bark



Cactopinus hubbardi, 375 Chamaecyparis (white-cedar):

Cones and seeds

Scale

Carulaspis juniperi, 115 Foliage, on

Leaf tier



Herculia phoezalis, 185 Mealybug

Pseudococcus obscurus, 125

580


Chamaecyparis (white-cedar)—Con. Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (Alaska 

Foliage, on— Continued cedar—Continued

Mites, spider Trunk and large branches, under bark

Oligonychus ?mongols, 61 Beetles, bark

Pentamerismus erythreus, 60 Phloeosinus sequoiae, 369

Scale Phloeosinus spp., 366



Carulaspis juniperi, 115 Borer, roundheaded

Twigs and small branches, on Atimia hoppingi, 293

Mealybug Cherry (Prunus)

Pseudococcus obscurus, 125 Chinkapin, golden (Castanopsis

Scale chrysophylla)



Carulaspis juniperi, 115 Cholla (Opuntia)

Twigs and small branches, under bark Chrysothamnus (rabbitbrush):

Beetles, bark Foliage, on

Phloeosinus spp., 366 Beetle, leaf

Trunk and large branches, on Trirhabda nitidicollis, 320

Aphid Roots, in wood

Cinara tujafilina, 96 Borer, roundheaded

Mealybug Crossidius hirtipes, 299



Pseudococcus obscurus, 125 Chrysothamnus nauseosus

Trunk and large branches, in bark Foliage, on

Beetles, hark Beetle, leaf

Phloeosinus spp., 366 Trirhabda nitidicollis, 320

Moth, bark Cornus (dogwood):



Laspeyresia cupressana, 148 Trunk and large branches, in wood

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetle, powderpost

Borer, roundheaded V rilletta decorata, 272 Semanotus ligneus, 304

Cornus nuttallii (Pacific dogwood): Roots, on

Foliage, on

Aphid

Cinara tujafilina, 96 Thrips ug

ealyb


M Thrips madronii, 79

Pseudococcus obscurus, 125 Corylus (filbert, hazel): Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port-

Seeds


Orford-cedar): Moth, seed

Melissopus latiferreanus, 150 Cones and seeds

seed


,

Midge Weevils, seed



Janetiella siskiyou, 419 Curculio spp., 322

Buds and shoots Corylus californica (California hazel):

Moths, tip Seeds

Argyresthia cupressella, 140 Weevil, seed

Argyresthia libocedrella, 141 Curculio occidentis, 322

Twigs and small branches, under bark Cottonwood (Populus)

Beetles, bark Covillea tridentata (creosotebush):

Phloeosinus spp., 366 Foliage, on

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetles, scarab

Beetle, bark Diplotaxis spp., 247

Phloeosinus sequoiae, 369 Crataegus (hawthorn):

Borer, roundheaded Foliage, on



Semanotus amethystinus, 304 Caterpillar

Trunk and large branches, in wood Datana ministra, 235

Borer, sapwood Leaf skeletonizer

Serropalpus substriatus, 281 Datana ministra, 235

Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (Alaska- Weevil

cedar): Magdalis aenescens, 328

Twigs and small branches, under bark Twigs and small branches, under bark

Beetles, bark Weevil, twig



Phloeosinus spp., 366 Magdalis aenescens, 328

Twigs and small branches, in wood Trunk and large branches, on

Beetle, bark Aphid

Phloeosinus keeni, 367 Eriosoma crataegi, 98

581


Creosotebush (Corillea tridentata ) Cupressus (cypress)—Continued

Cryptomeria japonica (Cryptomeria): Trunk and large branchs, on—Con.

Cones and seeds Mealybugs

Scale Ehrhornia cupressi, 125

Carulaspis juniperi, 115 Pseudococcus spp., 125

Foliage, on Trunk and large branches, in bark

Scale Moth, bark

Carulaspis juniperi, 115 Laspeyresia cupressana, 148

Twigs and small branches, on Trunk and large branches, under bark

Scale Beetles, bark

Carulaspis juniperi, 115 Phloeosinus cristatus, 368

Cupressus (cypress): Phloeosinus cupressi, 368

Cones and seeds Phloeosinus spp., 366

Moths, cone Borers, roundheaded

Holocera spp., 174 Atimia confusa, 292

Laspeyresia cupressana, 148 Semanotus ligneus, 304

Scale Trunk and large branches, in wood



Carulaspis juniperi, 115 Borer, flatheaded

Foliage, on Trachykele blondeli, 265

Beetle Horntails

Trachykele blondeli, 265 Sirex areolatus, 456

Caterpillar Xeris tarsalis, 457



Gloveria arizonensis, 186 Roots, on

Leaftiers Aphid



Epinotia subviridis, 145 Cinara tujafilina, 96

Herculia phoezalis, 185 Cupressus arizonica (Arizona cypress):

Mealybugs Twigs and small branches, under bark



Pseudococcus spp., 125 Beetle, bark

Spilococcus sequoiae, 127 Phloeosinus spinosus, 368

Mite, spider Trunk and large branches, under bark



Platytetranychus libocedri, 62 Borer, flatheaded

Sawfly Chrysobothris texana, 260



Susana cupressi, 452 Borer, roundheaded

Scales Atimia huachucae, 293



Aonidia shastae, 115 Cupressus goveniana (Gowen cypress):

Carulaspis juniperi, 115 Trunk and large branches, under bark

Buds and shoots, in Borer, roundheaded

Moths, tip Atimia helenae, 293

Argyresthia cupressella, 140 Trunk and large branches, in wood

Argyresthia franciscella, 141 Borer, flatheaded

Argyresthia trifasciae, 142 Trachykele hartmani, 265

Twigs and small branches, on Cupressus macrocarpa (Monterey

Mealybugs cypress):

Pseudococcus spp., 125 Cones and seeds

Mite, spider Borer, cone



Pentamerismus erythreus, 60 Ernobius conicola, 269

Scales Moths, cone



Aonidia shastae, 115 Commophila macrocarpana, 162

Carulaspis juniperi, 115 Epinotia hopkinsana cupressi,

Twigs and small branches, under bark 145

Beetles, bark Laspeyresia cupressana, 148

Phloeosinus spp., 366 Foliage, on

Twigs and small branches, in wood Mealybugs

Borers, roundheaded Dysmicoccus ryani, 125

Oeme rigida, 303 Spilococcus sequoiae, 127

Phymatodes nitidus, 303 Sawflies

Girdler, twig Susana annulata, 452



Styloxus bicolor, 306 Susana cupressi, 452

Trunk and large branches, on Foliage, in

Aphid Miner, leaf

Cinara tujafilina, 96 Coleotechnites stanfordia, 179

582


Cupressus macrocarrpa (Monterey Eucalyptus (eucalyptus)—Continued

cypress)—Continued Trunk and large branches, in wood

Buds and shoots, in Beetles, powderpost

Moth, bud Polycaon stoutii, 273

Epinotia hopkinsana cupressi, Scobicia declivis, 274

145 Borer, roundheaded

Twigs and small branches, on Necydalis cavipennis, 296 Mealybug

Puto cupressi, 125

Twigs and small branches, under bark Filbert (Corylus)

Beetles, bark Fir (A bies)

Phloeosinus spp., 366 Fraxinus (ash):

Moth, bark Flowers

Epinotia hopkinsana cupressi, Bugs, plant

145 Tropidosteptes spp., 81

Twigs and small branches, in wood Seeds

Borer, flatheaded Bugs, plant

Chrysobothris nixa, 260 Tropidosteptes spp., 81

Trunk and large branches, on Foliage, on

Mealybugs Bugs, plant

Ehrhornia cupressi, 125 Leptocoris trivittatus, 83

Puto cupressi, 125 Tropidosteptes spp., 81

Scale Caterpillars

Xylococculus macrocarpae, 124 Homoncocnemis fortis, 232

Trunk and large branches, in bark Hyalophora cecropia, 198

Moth, bark Webworm

Laspeyresia cupressana, 148 Hyphantria cunea, 219

Trunk and large branches, under bark Whitefly

Beetles, bark Trialeurodes vaporariorum, 110

Phloeosinus cristatus, 368 Foliage, in

Phloeosinus cupressi, 368 Miner, leafblotch

Borer, flatheaded Caloptilia syringella, 134

Chrysobothris nixa, 260 Twigs and small branches, in wood

Moth, bark Borer, roundheaded

Epinotia hopkinsana cupressi, Phymatodes vulneratus, 303

145 Trunk and large branches, under bark

Trunk and large branches, in wood Beetles, bark

Horntails Leperisinus aculeatus, 366

Sirex areolatus, 456 Leperisinus californicus, 366

Sirex behrensii, 456 Leperisinus criddlei, 366

Sirex juvencus, 456 Trunk and large branches, in wood

Xeris tarsalis, 457 Beetles, powderpost
(Ribes

Currant (Ribes)

Lyctus spp., 276

Borers, roundheaded

Cypress (Cupressus)

Neoclytus caprea, 302

Neoclytus conjunctus, 302 Dogwood (Cornus) Rosalia funebris, 304

Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga) Carpenterworm

Prionoxystus robiniae, 132 Elder (Sambucus) Moth, clearwing

Elephanttree (Bursera microphylla) Podosesia syringae fraxini, 139

Elm (Ulmus) Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash):

Eriobotrya japonica (loquat): Seeds

Foliage, on Weevil, seed

Mite, spider Thysanocnemis sp., 336

Oligonychus platani, 62 Foliage, on

Eucalyptus (eucalyptus): Bug, lace

Foliage, on Leptophya minor, 83

Caterpillar Bug, plant

Phryganidia californica, 220 Tropidosteptes pacificus, 81

583

Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash)—Con. Ilex (holly)—Continued

Foliage, on—Continued Twigs and small branches, on

Cricket, tree Scale

Oecanthus fultoni, 69 Pulvinaria floccifera, 113 Webworm

Hyphantria cunea, 219

Trunk and large branches, under bark Juglans (walnut):

Beetle, bark Twigs and small branches, under bark

Leperisinus oregonus, 366 Beetle, bark

Fraxinus velutina (velvet ash): Pityophthorus juglandis, 402

Foliage, on Juglans californica (California walnut):

Bug, lace Foliage, on

Leptophya minor, 83 Caterpillar

Bug, plant Orgyia vetusta, 226



Tropidosteptes illitus, 81 Juglans major (Arizona walnut):

Fremontia (Fremontia californica) Foliage, on



Fremontia californica (fremontia): Caterpillar

Twigs and small branches, in wood Orgyia sp., 227

Beetle, bark Juglans rupestris (Texas black walnut):

Pseudothysanoes hopkinsi, 383 Foliage, on

Trunk and large branches, in wood Caterpillar

Borer, flatheaded Datana integerrima, 235

Buprestis fremontiae, 258 Juniper (Juniperus)

Juniperus (juniper):

Fruit e, seeds Gaultheria shallon (salal): Mite, berry

Foliage, on Triselacus quadrisetus, 59

Looper Moth, seed



Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa, Periploca atrata, 180

205 Scale

Giant sequoia (Sequoia gigantea) Carulaspis juniperi, 115

Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust): Foliage, on

Foliage, on

Bagworm

Webworm


Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis, Homadaula anisocentra, 138

137


Gutierrezia (snakeweed):

Beetle


Foliage, on

Trachykele blondeli, 265

Beetle, leaf



Trirhabda nitidicollis, 320 Beetle, leaf

Glyptoscelis vandykei, 318 Beetles, scarab

Hackberry (Celtis) Dichelonyx valida, 247

Hawthorn (Crataegus) Diplotaxis spp., 247

Hazel (Corylus) Caterpillars

Hemlock (Tsuga) Gloveria arizonensis, 186

Holly (Ilex) Halisidota argentata subalpina,

Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos) 218

"Huckleberry" (V accinium) Sphinx sequoiae, 199



Hypericum perforatum (Klamath weed): Gallformer

Foliage, on Oligotrophus betheli, 420

Beetles, leaf Leaf tiers

Chrysolina hyperici, 316 Choristoneura houstonana, 171

Chrysolina quadrigemina, 316 Epinotia subviridis, 145 Mealybugs

Ilex (holly): Dysmicoccus ryani, 125

Foliage, on Pseudococcus spp., 125

Scale Mites, spider

Pulvinaria floccifera, 113 Eurytetranychus admes, 61

Foliage, in Oligonychus ununguis, 61

Miner, leaf blotch Pentamerismus erythreus, 60

Phytomyza ilicis, 428 Platytetranychus libocedri, 62

584


Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash)—Con. Hex (holly)—Continued

Foliage, on—Continued Twigs and small branches, on

Cricket, tree Scale

Oecanthus fultoni, 69 Pulvinaria floccifera, 113 Webworm

Hyphantria cunea, 219

Trunk and large branches, under bark Juglans (walnut):

Beetle, bark Twigs and small branches, under bark

Leperisinus oregonus, 366 Beetle, bark

Fraxinus velutina (velvet ash): Pityophthorus juglandis, 402

Foliage, on Juglans californica (California walnut):

Bug, lace Foliage, on

Leptophya minor, 83 Caterpillar

Bug, plant Orgyia vetusta, 226



Tropidosteptes illitus, 81 Juglans major (Arizona walnut):

Fremontia (Fremontia californica) Foliage, on



Fremontia californica (fremontia): Caterpillar

Twigs and small branches, in wood Orgyia sp., 227

Beetle, bark Juglans rupestris (Texas black walnut):

Pseudothysanoes hopkinsi, 383 Foliage, on

Trunk and large branches, in wood Caterpillar

Borer, flatheaded Datana integerrima, 235

Buprestis fremontiae, 258 Juniper (Juniperus) Juniperus (juniper):

Fruit e, s



Gaultheria shallon (salal): Mite, berry seed

Foliage, on Trisetacus quadrisetus, 59

Looper Moth, seed

Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa, Periploca atrata, 180

205 Scale

Giant sequoia (Sequoia gigantea) Carulaspis juniperi, 115

Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust): Foliage, on Foliage, on

Bagworm Webworm

,

Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis, Homadaula anisocentra, 138

Gutierrezia (snakeweed): 137

Foliage, on Beetle



Trachykele blondeli, 265

Beetle, leaf



Trirhabda nitidicollis, 320 Beetle, leaf

Glyptoscelis vandykei, 318 Beetles, scarab

Hackberry (Celtis) Dichelonyx valida, 247

Hawthorn (Crataegus) Diplotaxis spp., 247

Hazel (Corylus) Caterpillars

Hemlock (Tsuga) Gloveria arizonensis, 186

Holly (Ilex) Halisidota argentata subalpina,

Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos) 218

"Huckleberry" (V accinium) Sphinx sequoiae, 199



Hypericum perforatum (Klamath weed): Gallformer

Foliage, on Oligotrophus betheli, 420

Beetles, leaf Leaf tiers

Chrysolina'hyperici, 316 Choristoneura houstonana, 171

Chrysolina quadrigemina, 316 Epinotia subviridis, 145 Mealybugs

Ilex (holly): Dysmicoccus ryani, 125

Foliage, on Pseudococcus spp., 125

Scale Mites, spider



Pulvinaria floccifera, 113 Eurytetranychus admes, 61

Foliage, in Oligonychus ununguis, 61

Miner, leaf blotch Pentamerismus erythreus, 60

Phytomyza ilicis, 428 Platytetranychus libocedri, 62

584


Fraxinus latifolia (Oregon ash)—Con. Ilex (holly)—Continued

Foliage, on—Continued - . ".,Twigs.and small branches, on

Cricket, tree kale

Oecanthus fultoni, 69 Pulvinaria floccifera, 113

Webworm


Hyphantria cunea, 219

Trunk and large branches, under bark Juglans (walnut):

Beetle, bark Twigs and small branches, under bark

Leperisinus oregonus, 366 Beetle, bark

Fraxinus velutina (velvet ash): Pityophthorus juglandis, 402

Foliage, on Juglans californica (California walnut):

Bug, lace Foliage, on

Leptophya minor, 83 Caterpillar

Bug, plant Orgyia vetusta, 226



Tropidosteptes illitus, 81 Juglans major (Arizona walnut):

Fremontia (Fremontia californica) Foliage, on



Fremontia californica (fremontia): Caterpillar

Twigs and small branches, in wood Orgyia sp., 227

Beetle, bark Juglans rupestris (Texas black walnut):

Pseudothysanoes hopkinsi, 383 Foliage, on

Trunk and large branches, in wood Caterpillar

Borer, flatheaded Datana integerrima, 235

Buprestis fremontiae, 258 Juniper (Juniperus) Juniperus (juniper):

Fruit and seeds Gaultheria shallop (salal): Mite, berry

Foliage, on Trisetacus quadrisetus, 59

Looper Moth, seed



Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa, Periploca atrata, 180

205 Scale

Giant sequoia (Sequoia gigantea) Carulaspis juniperi, 115

Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust): Foliage, on
Foliage, on

Bagworm Webworm

,

Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis, Homadaula anisocentra, 138

Gutierrezia (snakeweed): 137

Foliage, on Beetle



Trachykele blondeli, 265

Beetle, leaf



Trirhabda nitidicollis, 320 Beetle, leaf

Glyptoscelis vandykei, 318

Beetles, scarab

Hackberry (Celtis) Dichelonyx valida, 247

Hawthorn (Crataegus) Diplotaxis spp., 247

Hazel (Corylus) Caterpillars

Hemlock (Tsuga) Gloveria arizonensis, 186

Holly (Ilex) Halisidota argentata subalpina,

Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos) 218

"Huckleberry" (V accinium) Sphinx sequoiae, 199

Hypericum perforatum (Klamath weed): Gallformer

Foliage, on Oligotrophus betheli, 420

Beetles, leaf Leaftiers

Chrysolina hyperici, 316 Choristoneura houstonana, 171

Chrysolina quadrigemina, 316 Epinotia subviridis, 145 Mealybugs

Ilex (holly): Dysmicoccus ryani, 125

Foliage, on Pseudococcus spp., 125

Scale Mites, spider

Pulvinaria floccifera, 113 Eurytetranychus admes, 61

Foliage, in Oligonychus ununguis, 61

Miner, leaf blotch Pentamerismus erythreus, 60

Phytomyza ilicis, 428 Platytetranychus libocedri, 62

584


Juniperus (juniper)—Continued Juniperus (juniper)—Continued

Foliage, on--Continued Trunk and large branches, in wood

Sawflies Beetle, ambrosia

Susana cupressi, 452 Trypodendron lineatum, 411

Susana oregonensis, 452 Borer, flatheaded

Scales Trachykele blondeli, 265



Aonidia shastae, 115 Borers, roundheaded

Carulaspis juniperi, 115 Callidium hoppingi, 299

Webworms Callidium juniperi, 299



Dichomeris marginella, 180 Juniperus californica (California juni 

Halisidota argentata subalpina, per):

218 Fruits and seeds

Foliage, in Mite, berry

Miners, needle Trisetacus quadrisetus, 59



Aethes rutilana, 161 Foliage, on

Choristoneura houstonana, 171 Leafhopper

Coleotechnites occidentis, 177 Colladonus cachellus, 92

Buds and shoots, in Leaf tier

Moth, tip Choristoneura houstonana, 171

Argyresthia cupressella, 140 Trunk and large branches, on

Twigs and small branches, on Mealybug

Gallformer Ehrhornia cupressi, 125

Rhopalomyia sabinae, 421 Juniperus deppeana (alligator juniper):

Mealybugs Twigs and small branches, under bark



Pseudococcus spp., 125 Beetles, bark

Scale Phloeosinus spp., 366



Carulaspis juniperi, 115 Trunk and large branches, under bark

Spittlebugs Beetles, bark



Clastoptera juniperina, 90 Phloeosinus furnissi, 367

Clastoptera sp., 90 Phloeosinus hoferi, 367

Twigs and small branches, under bark Phloeosinus serratus, 368

Beetles, bark Juniperus monospe ma (one-seed juni 

Phloeosinus spp., 366 per):

Moth, twig Trunk and large branches, under bark



Periploca nigra, 180 Beetle, bark

Twigs and small branches, in wood Phloeosinus furnissi, 367

Borer, flatheaded Juniperus occidentalis (western juni 

Chrysobothris nixa, 260 per):

Borers, roundheaded Fruit and seeds

Callidium juniperi, 299 Mite, berry

Callidium texanum, 299 Trisetacus quadrisetus, 59

Oeme rigida, 303 Foliage, on

Girdler, twig Beetles, leaf



Styloxus bicolor, 306 Glyptoscelis illustris, 318

Trunk and large branches, on Glyptoscelis juniperi, 318

Mealybugs Leaftier

Pseudococcus spp., 125 Choristoneura houstonana, 171

Trunk and large branches, in bark Foliage, in

Moth, bark Miner, needle

Laspeyresia cupressana, 148 Coleotechnites juniperella, 177

Trunk and large branches, under bark Twigs and small branches, under bark

Beetles, bark • Beetles, bark

Phloeosinus spp., 366 Phloeosinus spp., 366

Borer, flatheaded Trunk and large branches, under bark



Chrysobothris nixa, 260 Beetles, bark

Borers, roundheaded Phloeosinus hoppingi, 367



Atimia confusa, 292 Phloeosinus punctatus, 367

Atimia huachucae, 293 Phloeosinus serratus, 368

Atimia vandykei, 293 Trunk and large branches, in wood

Semanotus juniperi, 304 Ants, carpenter

Semanotus ligneus, 304 Camponotus spp., 472

585


Juniperus occidentalis (western juni- Larix (larch)—Continued

per)—Continued Foliage, on—Continued

Trunk and large branches, in wood— Loopers—Continued

Continued Caripeta angustiorata, 202

Horntails Caripeta divisata, 202

Sirex areolatus, 456 Eupithecia luteata, 204

Xeris tarsalis, 457 N yctobia limitaria, 213

Woodwasp Sawflies



Syntexis libocedrii, 457 Anoplonyx app., 445

Juniperus osteosperma (Utah juniper): Pristiphora erichsonii, 450

Cones and seeds Weevils

Gallformer Hylobius pinicola, 326

Walshomyia juniperina, 421 Hylobius warreni, 326

Foliage, on Twigs and small branches, in wood

Gallformer Borer, roundheaded

Alassomyia juniperi, 415 Neoclytus muricatulus, 302

Twigs and small branches, under bark Moth, tip

Beetles, bark Argyresthia laricella, 141

Phloeosinus spp., 366 Trunk and large branches, under bark

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetles, bark

Beetles, bark Dendroctonus valens, 362

Phloeosinus furnissi, 367 Dryocoetes affaber, 378

Phloeosinus hoferi, 367 Dryocoetes autographus, 378

Phloeosinus serratus, 368 Polygraphus rufipennis, 370

Borer, flatheaded Scolytus piceae, 406



Chrysobothris texana, 260 Scolytus tsugae, 407

Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Moun- Borers, roundheaded

tain juniper): Phymatodes dimidiatus, 303

Fruit and seeds Rhagium inquisitor, 297

Mite, berry Semanotus litigiosus, 305



Trisetacus quadrisetus, 59 Trunk and large branches, in wood

Foliage, on Beetle, ambrosia

Gallformer Trypodendron lineatum, 411

Walshomyia insignia, 421 Borers, roundheaded

Sawfly Asemum caseyi, 292



Susana fuscala, 452 Asemum nitidum, 292

Twigs and small branches, on Asemum striatum, 292

Aphid Hylotrupes bajulus, 300

Cinara sabinae, 96 Neoclytus muricatulus, 302

Twigs and small branches, under bark Phymatodes dimidiatus, 303

Beetles, bark Roots, on

Phloeosinus app., 366 Weevils, root

Trunk and large branches, under bark Hylobius pinicola, 326

Beetle, bark Hylobius warreni, 326

Phloeosinus scopulorum, 368 Roots, under bark

Borer, flatheaded Beetle, bark



Chrysobothris texana, 260 Dryocoetes autographus, 378 Weevils, root-collar

Hylobius pinicola, 326 Klamath weed (Hypericum per foratum) Hylobius warreni, 326

Larix laricina (tamarack): Larch (Larix) Cones and seeds

Larix (larch): Aphid

Cones and seeds Adelges lariciatus, 106

Moth, cone Foliage, on

Commophila fuscodorsana, 162 Looper

Foliage, on Semiothisa sexmaculata sexmacu 

Butterfly lata, 216

Neophasia menapia, 240 Sawflies

Loopers Anoplonyx canadensis, 445



Biston cognataria, 202 Anoplonyx luteipes, 445

586
Larix laricina (tamarack)—Continued Foliage, on—Continued Sawflies—Continued



Pristiphora erichsonii, 450

Buds and shoots, on

Aphid

Adelges lariciatus, 106

Buds and shoots, in

Moth, bud

Zeiraphera improbana, 161 Trunk and large branches, under barl Beetle, bark

Dendroctonus simplex, 361

Larix lyallii (subalpine larch):

Cones and seeds

Aphid

Adelges lariciatus, 106

Foliage, on

Sawfly

Pristiphora erichsonii, 450

Buds and shoots, on

Aphid

Adelges lariciatus, 106

Trunk and large branches, under barl Beetle, bark



Scolytus laricis, 405

Larix occidentalis (western larch): Cones and seeds

Moth, cone



Choristoneura occidentalis, 168 Foliage, on

Aphid


Adelges oregonensis, 107 Budworm

Choristoneura occidentalis, 168 Casebearer

Coleophora laricella, 174 Caterpillar

Orgyia antiqua, 223

Leaftier


Argyrotaenia dorsalana, 166 Loopers

Nepytia freemani, 211 Semiothisa sexmaculata incolor. ata, 216

Semiothisa signaria dispuncta 216

Sawflies


Anoplonyx laricivorus, 445 Anoplonyx occidens, 445 Pristiphora erichsonii, 450

Foliage, in

Miner, needle

Coleophora laricella, 174

Buds and shoots, in

Budworm

Choristoneura occidentalis, 168 Moth, bud

Zeiraphera improbana, 161

Larix occidentalis (western larch)—Con. Twigs and small branches, on Aphids

Adelges oregonensis, 107

Cinara laricifoliae, 96

Twigs and small branches, in wood Moth, tip



Argyresthia columbia, 141

Trunk and large branches, in bark Moths, bark



Laspeyresia laricana, 148 Laspeyresia leucobasis, 148

Trunk and large branches, under bark

Beetles, bark

Dendroctonus pseudotsugae, 357 Orthotomicus caelatus, 398 Scolytus laricis, 405

Xylechinus montanus, 375 Borer, flatheaded

Melanophila drummondi, 263 Borer, roundheaded

Tetropium velutinum, 294 Weevil, bark

Pissodes schwarzi, 333

Trunk and large branches, in wood Horntails



Sirex juvencus, 456

Urocerus albicornis, 457 Urocerus californicus, 457 Urocerus gigas flavicornis, 457 Xeris morrisoni, 457

Xeris spectrum, 457

Laurel, California (Umbellularia cali­fornica)



Libocedrus decurrens (incense-cedar): Cones and seeds

Bug, leaf-footed



Leptoglossus occidentalis, 84 Sawfly, cone

Augomonoctenus libocedrii, 440 Scale

Carulaspis juniperi, 115

Foliage, on

Beetle

Trachykele blondeli, 265

Beetles, leaf



Glyptoscelis albida, 318 Glyptoscelis juniperi zanthocoma, 318

Cutworm


Euxoa excellens, 232

Mites, spider



Eurytetranychus admes, 61 Pentamerismus erythreus, 60 Scales

Aonidia shastae, 115

Carulaspis juniperi, 115

Buds and shoots, in

Moths, tip

Argyresthia arceuthobiella, 141 Argyresthia libocedrella, 141

587


Libocedrus decurrens (incense-cedar)— Lithocarpus densiflorus (tanoak)—Con.

Continued Foliage, on—Continued

Twigs and small branches, on Whitefly

Scale Aleuroplatus coronatus, 110



Carulaspis juniperi, 115 Trunk and large branches, under bark

Twigs and small branches, under bark Beetles, bark

Beetles, bark Pseudopityophthorus spp., 402

Phloeosinus spp., 366 Trunk and large branches, in wood

Twigs and small branches, in wood Beetle, powderpost

Borer, roundheaded Melalgus confertus, 273

Phymatodes nitidus, 303 Borers, roundheaded

Trunk and large branches, on Necydalis cavipennis, 296

Mealybugs Necydalis laevicollis, 297

Ehrhornia cupressi, 125 Locust (Robinia)

Puto laticribellum, 126 Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) Scales

Diaspidiotus ehrhorni, 116

Xylococculus macrocarpae, 124

Trunk and large branches, in bark Madrone (Arbutus)

Moth, bark Malus (apple and crab apple):

Laspeyresia cupressana, 148 Foliage, on

Trunk and large branches, under bark Caterpillar

Beetles, bark Orgyia antiqua, 223

Phloeosinus punctatus, 369 Caterpillars, tent

Phloeosinus spp., 366 Malacosoma californicum, 188

Borer, flatheaded Malacosoma disstria, 189



Chrysobothris nixa, 260 Leafhopper

Borers, roundheaded Edwardsiana rosae, 93



Atimia confusa, 292 Loopers

Atimia gannoni, 293 Alsophila pometaria, 199

Semanotus amethystinus, 304 Operophtera bruceata, 213

Semanotus ligneus, 304 Paleacrita vernata, 214

Trunk and large branches, in wood Twigs and small branches, on

Ants, carpenter Scale

Camponotus spp., 472 Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, 118

Beetle, ambrosia Trunk and large branches, on



Xyleborus saxeseni, 413 Gallformer

Borers, flatheaded Eriosoma lanigerum, 98



Trachykele blondeli, 265 Scale

Trachykele opulenta, 266 Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, 118

Borer, sapwood Trunk and large branches, in wood



Serropalpus substriatus, 281 Beetle, powderpost

Horntails Vrilletta decorata, 272



Sirex areolatus, 456 Roots, on

Urocerus californicus, 457 Gallformer

Xeris morrisoni, 457 Eriosoma lanigerum, 98

Woodwasp Manzanita (A rctostaphylos)



Syntexis libocedrii, 457 Maple (Acer)

Liriodendron tulipifera (tuliptree): Mesquite (Prosopis)

Twigs and small branches, on Mistletoe (Phoradendron)

Scale Mountain-mahogany (Cercocarpus)

Toumeyella liriodendri, 114 Myrtle, Oregon (Umbellularia cali-

Lithocarpus densiflorus (tanoak): fornica)

Seeds


Moth, seed

Melissopus latiferreanus, 150

Weevil, seed Oak (Quercus)



Curculio occidentis, 322 Opuntia (cholla; pricklypear):

Foliage, on Trunk and large branches, in wood

Caterpillar Borers, roundheaded

Phryganidia californica, 220 Moneilema spp., 309

588


Paloverde (Cercidium)

Parkinsonia (Parkinsonia torreyana) Parkinsonia torreyana (parkinsonia): Seeds

Beetle, seed

Bruchidae, 321

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetle, bark

Chaetophloeus parkinsoniae, 345 Phoradendron (mistletoe):

Trunk and large branches, in wood Beetle, bark



Pseudothysanoes phoradendri, 383 Picea (spruce):

Cones and seeds

Maggot, cone

Earomyia barbara, 426

Moths, cone



Commophila fuscodorsana, 162 Dioryctria abietivorella, 181 Dioryctria pseudotsugella, 185 Dioryctria reniculelloides, 185 Laspeyresia youngana, 149

Foliage, on

Aphid

Elatobium abietinum, 96

Beetles, scarab



Dichelonyx backi, 247

Polyphylla decemlineata, 250 Caterpillar

Orgyia antiqua, 223

Leaftier


Herculia thymetusalis, 185 Loopers

Caripeta angustiorata, 202 Caripeta divisata, 202

Ectropis crepuscularia, 202 Enypia packardata, 203

Enypia venata, 203

Epirrita autumnata omissa, 203 Eupithecia annulata, 204 Eupithecia luteata, 204 Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria,

205


Melanolophia imitata, 209 Nepytia canosaria, 210

Nepytia umbrosaria nigrovenaria, 213

Nyctobia limitaria, 213 Semiothisa signaria dispuncta, 216

Mealybug


Pseudococcus obscurus, 125 Mite, spider

Oligonychus ununguis, 61 Sawfllies

Neodiprion abietis, 441 Neodiprion abietis var., 441 Pikonema dimmockii, 450 Pikonema ruralis, 450

Picea (spruce)—Continued Foliage, on—Continued Scales

Chionaspis pinifoliae, 115 Physokermes piceae, 112 Weevils

Hylobius pinicola, 326 Hylobius warreni, 326 Magdalis alutacea, 328

Foliage, in

Miners, needle

Coleotechnites piceaella, 179 Taniva albolineana, 159 Buds and shoots, in

Budworms


Archippus packardianus, 165 Choristoneura spp., 168 Dioryctria abietivorella, 181 Dioryctria pseudotsugella, 185 Dioryctria reniculelloides, 185

Twigs and small branches, on

Mealybug

Pseudococcus obscurus, 125 Scale

Physokermes piceae, 112 Spittlebug

Aphrophora permutata, 89

Twigs and small branches, under bark Beetles, bark



Carphoborus carri, 345 Phloeosinus pini, 367 Pityokteines minutus, 400

Beetle, twig



Pityophthorus nitidulus, 402 Weevil, twig

Magdalis alutacea, 328

Twigs and small branches, in wood

Borers, roundheaded Neoclytus muricatulus, 302 Phymatodes maculicollis, 303

Trunk and large branches, on

Mealybug

Pseudococcus obscurus, 125 Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetles, bark

Crypturgus borealis, 378 Dendroctonus rufipennis, 359 Dendroctonus valens, 362 Dryocoetes affaber, 378 Dryocoetes autographus, 378 Dryocoetes caryi, 380 Hylastes nigrinus, 364 Hylurgops rugipennis, 365 Ips integer, 389

Ips pini, 390

Phloeosinus pini, 367 Polygraphus convexifrons, 370 Polygraphus rufipennis, 370 Scierus annectens, 374 Scierus pubescens, 374 Scolytus opacus, 405

589


Picea (Spruce)—Continued

Trunk and large branches, under bark —Continued

Beetles, bark—Continued
Scolytus piceae, 406

Scolytus ventralis, 409 Borer, flatheaded

Melanophila drummondi, 263 Borers, roundheaded

Acanthocinus obliquus, 308 Acanthocinus pusillus, 309 Phymatodes dimidiatus, 303 Rhagium inquisitor, 297 Semanotus litigiosus, 305 Tetropium velutinum, 294

Trunk and large branches, in wood

Beetles, ambrosia

Gnathotrichus sulcatus, 381 Trypodendron lineatum, 411 Trypodendron rufitarsis, 412

Beetles, powderpost



Hemicoelus gibbicollis, 270 Microbregma emarginatum, 270 Borers, flatheaded

Buprestis adjecta, 258

Buprestis aurulenta, 257 Dicerca tenebrosa, 262

Borers, roundheaded



Acmaeops proteus, 295 Anoplodera canadensis, 295 Anoplodera chrysocoma, 295 Arhopalus asperatus, 291 Asemum caseyi, 292

Asemum nitidum, 292

Asemum striatum, 292

Hylotrupes bajulus, 300

Leptura obliterata, 296 Meriellum proteus, 301 Monochamus scutellatus, 310 Neoclytus muricatulus, 302 Pachyta lamed, 297

Phymatodes dimidiatus, 303 Ulochaetes leoninus, 297 Xylotrechus undulatus, 307

Horntails



Sirex juvencus, 456

Urocerus albicornis, 457 Urocerus gigas flavicornis, 457 Weevil, sapwood

Rhyncolus brunneus, 334 Roots, on

Aphid


Rhizomaria piceae, 101 Beetle

Hylastes nigrinus, 364 Mealybug

Pseudococcus obscurus, 125 Weevils, root

Hylobius pinicola, 326 Hylobius warreni, 326

590


Picea (spruce)—Continued

Roots, on—Continued

Weevils, root—Continued Otiorhynchus spp., 328 Roots, under bark

Beetles, bark



Hylastes nigrinus, 364 Hylurgops rugipennis, 365 Maggot, seed

Hylemya platura, 428

Weevils, root-collar



Hylobius pinicola, 326 Hylobius warreni, 326

Roots, in wood

Borer, roundheaded

Ulochaetes leoninus, 297 Picea breweriana (Brewer spruce): Foliage, on

Aphid


Adelges cooleyi, 103

Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce): Cones and seeds

Chalcid, seed



Megastigmus piceae, 468 Loopers, cone

Eupithecia albicapitata, 204 Eupithecia columbrata, 204 Maggot, cone

Hylemya anthracina, 428 Midges, cone

Dasineura canadensis, 419 Dasineura rachiphaga, 418 Moth, cone

Laspeyresia youngana, 149 Foliage, on

Aphids


Adelges abietis, 103

Adelges cooleyi, 103

Pineus boycei, 108

Pineus pinifoliae, 109

Pineus similis, 110

Budworms


Acleris gloverana, 163 Choristoneura biennis, 170 Choristoneura occidentalis, 168

Leaf tier



Argyrotaenia dorsalana, 166 Looper

Nepytia freemani, 211

Mealybug


Puto sandini, 126

Moths, bud



Zeiraphera destitutana, 161 Zeiraphera fortunana, 161 Zeiraphera vancouverana, 161

Sawfly


Pikonema alaskensis, 449 Sawflies, webspinning

Cephalcia fascipennis, 436 Cephalcia provancheri, 436

Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce) —Continued

Foliage, in

Miner, needle

Taniva albolineana, 159 Buds and shoots, in

Budworms


Acleris gloverana, 163 Choristoneura biennis, 170 Choristoneura occidentalis, 168

Twigs and small branches, on

Aphids

Cinara coloradensis, 96 Cinara curvipes, 96

Cinara fornacula, 96

Gallformers



Adelges abietis, 103

Adelges cooleyi, 103

Pineus boycei, 108

Pineus pinifoliae, 109 Pineus similis, 110

Mealybugs



Puto cupressi, 125

Puto sandini, 126

Twigs and small branches, under bark Moth, pitch nodule



Petrova burkeana, 152 Moth, twig and shoot

Eucosma sonomana, 147 Weevil, terminal

Pissodes strobi, 332

Trunk and large branches, on Mealybug



Puto cupressi, 125

Trunk and large branches, in bark Moth, bark



Laspeyresia leucobasis, 148 Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetles, bark

Cryphalus ruficollis, 377 Dendroctonus rufipennis, 359 Dolurgus pumilus, 378 Dryocoetes affaber, 378 Dryocoetes confusus, 380 Hylastes macer, 364

Ips borealis, 393

Ips hunteri, 393

Ips perturbatus, 393

Ips pilifrons, 393

Ips tridens, 393

Orthotomicus caelatus, 398 Pityogenes fossifrons, 400 Polygraphus hoppingi, 370 Scierus annectens, 374

Xylechinus montalius, 375

Borer, roundheaded



Tetropium parvulum, 294 Moth, pitch

Vespamima novaroensis, 140Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce) —Continued

Trunk and large branches, under bark —Continued

Weevil, bark

Pissodes schwarzi, 333

Trunk and large branches, in wood Borer, sapwood



Serropalpus substriatus, 281 Roots, on

Beetle


Hylastes macer, 364

Roots, under bark

Beetle, bark

Hylastes macer, 364

Picea glauca (white spruce): Cones and seeds

Chalcid, seed



Megastigmus piceae, 468 Maggot, cone

Hylemya anthracina, 428 Midges, cone

Dasineura canadensis, 419 Dasineura rachiphaga, 418 Moth, cone

Laspeyresia youngana, 149 Foliage, on

Aphids


Adelges abietis, 103

Adelges cooleyi, 103

Adelges lariciatus, 106 Pineus similis, 110

Budworms


Choristoneura biennis, 170 Choristoneura fumiferana, 171 Choristoneura occidentalis, 168

Caterpillar



Parorgyia grisefacta, 227 Cutworm

Actebia fennica, 232

Leaf tier



Argyrotaenia occultana, 166 Looper

Nepytia freemani, 211 Sawfly

Pikonema alaskensis, 449 Sawflies, webspinning

Cephalcia fascipennis, 436 Cephalcia provancheri, 436 Foliage, in

Miner, needle



Taniva albolineana, 159 Buds and shoots, in

Budworms


Choristoneura biennis, 170 Choristoneura fumiferana, 171 Choristoneura occidentalis, 168

Gallformer



Mayetiola piceae, 419

Midge, bud



Rhabdophaga swainei, 420

591


Picea glauca (white spruce)—Con. Buds and shoots, in—Continued Miner, bud

Argyresthia picea, 142 Moths, bud

Zeiraphera canadensis, 161 Zeiraphera destitutana, 161 Zeiraphera fortunana, 161

Twigs and small branches, on

Aphid

Cinara fornacula, 96 Gallformers

Adelges abietis, 103 Adelges cooleyi, 103 Adelges lariciatus, 106 Pineus similis, 110

Twigs and small branches, under bark

Beetle, bark

Phloeotribus lecontei, 369

Trunk and large branches, under bark Beetles, bark



Dendroctonus punctatus, 359 Dendroctonus rufipennis, 359

Ips borealis, 393 Ips perturbatus, 393 Ips tridens, 393

Orthotomicus caelatus, 398 Scierus annectens, 374 Xylechinus montanus, 375

Borers, roundheaded



Tetropium cinnamopterum, 293 Tetropium parvulum, 294

Weevil, bark



Pissodes coloradensis, 331

Trunk and large branches, in wood Borer, sapwood



Serropalpus substriatus, 281 Horntails

Sirex cyaneus, 456

Urocerus gigas flavicornis, 457

Picea mariana (black spruce):

Cones and seeds

Borer, cone

Ernobius nigrans, 269 Maggot, cone

Hylemya anthracina, 428 Midges, cone

Dasineura canadensis, 419 Dasineura rachiphaga, 418 Foliage, on

Aphids


Adelges lariciatus, 106 Adelges strobilobius, 107 Pineus similis, 110

Budworms


Acleris gloverana, 163 Archippus alberta, 165 Choristoneura fumiferana, 171

Leaftier


Herculia thymetusalis, 185

Picea mariana (black spruce)—Con. Foliage, on—Continued

Sawfly


Pikonema alaskensis, 449 Sawfly, webspinning

Cephalcia provancheri, 436

Buds and shoots, in

Budworms

Acleris gloverana, 163

Archippus alberta, 165 Choristoneura fumiferana, 171 Midge, bud

Rhabdophaga swainei, 420 Moth, bud

Zeiraphera destitutana, 161 Twigs and small branches, on

Aphid


Cinara fornacula, 96 Gallformers

Adelges lariciatus, 106

Adelges strobilobius, 107

Pineus similis, 110

Trunk and large branches, under bark Weevil, bark



Pissodes rotundatus, 331

Picea pungens (blue spruce):

Cones and seeds

Chalcid, seed

Megastigmus piceae, 468

Moth, cone



Laspeyresia youngana, 149

Foliage, on

Aphids

Adelges cooleyi, 103

Adelges lariciatus, 106

Mindarus abietinus, 99

Pineus pinifoliae, 109

Pineus similis, 110

Budworm


Choristoneura occidentalis, 168

Sawfly


Pikonema alaskensis, 449

Sawfly, webspinning



Cephalcia fascipennis, 436

Weevil


Thricolepis inornata, 336

Foliage, in

Miners, needle

Coleotechnites piceaella, 179 Taniva albolineana, 159

Buds and shoots, on

Thrips

Taeniothrips pini, 79

Buds and shoots, in

Budworm

Choristoneura occidentalis, 168 Twigs and small branches, on

Aphids


Cinara coloradensis, 96

Cinara fornacula, 96

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