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Appendix sources of data on maximum linear body sizes, species ranges and species numbers for taxa shown in Table 1

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Makarieva, A.M., Gorshkov, V.G., Li, B.-L.

Temperature-related limits to body size: An interspecific geographic analysis of maximum body sizes in terrestrial poikilotherms.


Sources of data on maximum linear body sizes, species ranges and species numbers for taxa shown in Table 1
I. Body size sources
Notes: W — largest in the world, GB — largest in Great Britain, A — largest on Wrangel Island (A[rctics])
1. Collembola (springtails)

W, GB: Hopkin 1997; A: Martynova 1970

2. Dermaptera (earwigs)

W: Bass & Dalal-Clayton 1995; GB: Hincks 1956

3. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, bush crickets)

W: Chung 2002, body length estimate of 12 cm for Macrolyristes imperator is that of a specimen stored in the Natural History Museum of London (Dr. J. Marshall, pers. com.); GB: Hincks 1956

4. Blattodea (cockroaches)

W: Day 1950; GB: Hincks 1956

5. Heteroptera (bugs)

W: Meure & Lauck 1962; GB: Dolling 1991; A: Ler 1988

6 & 7. Odonata: Anisoptera (dragonflies) and Odonata: Zygoptera (damselflies)

W: Silsby 2001; GB: Longfield 1949

8. Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera (butterflies)

W: Kuns 1998; GB: that Papilio machaon is the largest butterfly in Great Britain was determined from Higgins & Riley 1970, however, the reported size (wing length of 32-38mm corresponding to wingspan of about 7 cm) is apparently too low for this species (Gorshkov & Makarieva, pers. obs.), so the body size data were taken from the species description by Layberry et al. 1998; A: Kurentzov 1970

9. Lepidoptera: Heterocera (moths)

W: Kuns 1998; GB: South 1961; A: Lukhtanov & Khruliova 1989

10. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea (scarab beetles)

W: Williams 2001; GB: Britton 1956

11. Coleoptera: Carabidae (ground beetles)

W: Rousseau 1906; GB: Freude et al. 1976; A: Dr. O. Berlov (1989 and pers. com.), Ler 1989

12. Hymenoptera: Formicidae (ants)

W: Peeters et al. 1999 claim that the queenless ants Dinoponera quadriceps from Brazil are the world's largest, with body lengths ranging from 15 to 30 mm (Monnin & Ratnieks 1999). However, Pfeiffer 1996 reported that the largest individuals (queens) of a Malaysian ant species Camponotus gigas attain 31 mm in body length. So we took the latter species for our analysis; GB: Collingwood 1958

13. Hymenoptera: Apidae (bees)

W: Messer 1984, GB: that Bombus terrestris is one of the largest bees in Great Britain was pointed out by Dr. S. Corbet (pers. com.) (Prэs-Jones & Corbet 1991), body length taken from Saunders 1896; A: Ler 1995

14. Hymenoptera: Pompilidae (spider wasps)

W: Wasbauer 1995 noted that Pepsis species are among the largest wasps known, Fabricius 1798 mentioned that Pepsis heros F. is the largest in the genus, body length taken from Lucas 1895; GB: Day 1988

15. Diptera: Nematocera (thread-horns)

W: Westwood 1876 (describes Holorusia brobdingnagia as one of the “most gigantic Dipterous insects”); GB: Coyler & Hammond 1951 identify T. maxima as the largest species of Nematocera in Great Britain, while Savchenko 1964 reports its wing length; A: Savchenko 1961

16. Diptera: Brachycera (short-horns)

W: Wilcox et al. 1989; GB: Coyler & Hammond 1951

17. Arachnida: Araneae (spiders)

W: Cloudsley-Thompson 1958; GB: Hillyard 1999; A: Kulczyński 1908

18. Arachnida: Acari (mites and ticks)

W: Walter & Proctor 1999; GB: that Trombidium holosericeum is the largest free-living Acari in Great Britain was determined by Dr. A. Baker (Natural History Museum of London, pers. com.), body length reported by Makol & Wohltmann 2000

19. Chilopoda (centipedes)

W: Shelley & Kiser 2000; GB: Eason 1964

20. Diplopoda (millipedes)

W: personal measurements of animals reared in the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St.-Petersburg); GB: Blower 1985

21. Gastropoda: Styllomatophora (land snails)

W: Barnes 1980; GB: Cameron & Redfern 1976

22. Amphibia: Anura (frogs)

W: AmphibiaWeb 2003; GB: Smith 1954

23. Reptilia: Serpentes (snakes)

W: Shine et al. 1999; GB: Smith 1954

24. Reptilia: Sauria (lizards)

W: Ciofi 1999, GB: Smith 1954

25. Oligochaeta: Lumbricina (earthworms)

W: Michaelsen 1918 identifies Rhinodrilus fafner as world’s largest worm exceeding in length (up to 210 cm) the well-known Megascolides australis from Australia; GB: Sims & Gerard 1985; A: Eisen 1879. Note: Body diameter of E. nordenskioldi was estimated from the known body length assuming geometric similarity between E. nordenskioldi and L. terrestris (maximum body length 15 and 30 cm, respectively).

II. Sources for geographic ranges of the world’s largest species from the above 25 taxa
In most cases the data on geographic ranges come from the W sources listed above. Additional sources:
7. Megaloprepus caerulatus, Costa Rica: Hedstrцm & Sahlйn 2003
14. Pepsis heros F., Brazil, Ecuador, Peru: Hurd 1952
18. Dinothrombium tinctorium, Guinea coast of Africa (location of original description by Linneaus): Z.-Q. Zhang pers. com.
19. Archispirostreptus gigas, Kenya: UNEP 1998
21. Achatina achatina, Nigeria: Umezurike & Iheanacho 1983

III. Sources for species numbers in the considered taxa in the world (W), Great Britain (GB) and on Wrangel Island
All data on species numbers for Wrangel Island are from Khruliova 1987 except for Collembola where they come from Martynova et al. 1973.
1 — W,GB: Hopkin 1997; 2 — W,GB: Hincks 1956; 3 — W: Hincks 1956, GB: Marshall 1999a; 4 — W,GB: Marshall 1999b; 5 — W,GB: Dolling 1991; 6,7 — W: Davies & Tobin 1985, GB: Longfield 1949; 8,9 — W: calculated from the data of Orme et al. 2002 assuming that moths account for about 85% and butterflies for about 15% of the total number of Lepidoptera species; 8 — GB: Emmet & Heath 1990; 9 — GB: South 1961; 10 — W,GB: Britton 1956; 11 — W: Bousquet & LaRochelle 1993, GB: Linssen 1959; 12,13,14 — W,GB: Noyes et al. 1999; 15 — GB: Coyler & Hammond 1951; 17 — W: Orme et al. 2002, GB: Hillyard 1999; 18 — W: Walter & Proctor 1999, GB: Baker 1999; 19: W: Dogel 1975, GB: Eason 1964; 20 — W,GB: Blower 1985; 21 — W: Beiler 1992, Wade et al. 2001, GB: Cameron & Redfern 1976; 22 — W: AmphibiaWeb 2003, GB: Smith 1954; 23,24 — W: Orme et al. 2002, GB: Smith 1954; 25 — W,GB: Sims & Gerard 1985.

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