|An outline of Campanulaceae for Flora of Thailand
Brigitta E.E. Duyfjes & Willem J.J.O. de Wilde
Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Naturalis (section NHN), Leiden University
P.O. Box 9514, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
The Campanulaceae is a fairly large family with a worldwide distribution, harbouring about 2300 species in 84 genera (Lammers, 2007). There are 5 subfamilies, but only the two larger ones occur in Thailand: Campanuloideae (regular flowers, free stamens) and Lobelioideae (zygomorphic, resupinate flowers, united stamens). Species of Campanulaceae are usually herbs of temperate climatic areas, in Thailand montane, but Lobelia is mainly tropical.
Our present research revealed for Thailand the presence of 10 genera with 28 species, including two endemic species.
Some genera enter Northern Thailand from China or India and are represented by one species only, e.g. Adenophora stricta Miq., or Asyneuma fulgens (Wall.) Briq., both known from few localities. The genus Campanula is rare in Thailand and represented by three species: Campanula cana Wall., known from one locality near the border with Loas, Campanula colorata Wall., which occurs in Thailand only on Doi Chiang Dao at high altitudes, while Campanula rosmarinifolia Kerr, from Doi Hua Mot near Umphang is endemic to Thailand. The monotypic genus Peracarpa (P. carnosa), only found at high altitudes, has a wide distribution, from India to Thailand, through Malesia to New Guinea. It was once found by Kerr in 1921 on Doi Hom Pok near Fang at 2000 m.
The genus Lobelia is the largest in Thailand and represented by 15 species. Especially the group of species around the traditionally as widespread accepted Lobelia alsinoides Lam. caused problems with the delimitation of the species, with as a result that L. alsinoides will now be accepted as a species confined to Sri Lanka and India. The shape of the seeds, the presence of hairs on the top of the anthers and also the growth habit provide useful characters in recognizing the species. One new Lobelia species, endemic to Thailand, and edible, was discovered by P. Phonsena and B. Boonsuk near Khon Kaen.
The flora treatment for Thailand of Campanulaceae is scheduled as being ready by the end of 2012.