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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 28 The Onset of the Cold War


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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 28 The Onset of the Cold War
28.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Harry S Truman's approach to foreign policy could be characterized as being in the tradition of

A) Woodrow Wilson.

B) George Washington.

C) Franklin D. Roosevelt.

D) Theodore Roosevelt.

E) Herbert Hoover.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 700 [Factual]


2) At the ________ Conference, the victorious Allied powers decided to take reparations from their own occupation zones in Germany.

A) Yalta

B) Tehran

C) Tokyo

D) Potsdam

E) Paris Peace

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 701 [Factual]


3) The crucial issue discussed at the Potsdam Conference involved

A) the use of the atomic bomb.

B) the future of Berlin.

C) war reparations.

D) opening a second front against Germany.

E) how to deal with Japan.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 701 [Factual]


4) The fundamental disagreement at the beginning of the Cold War involved the question of

A) who would control postwar Europe.

B) sharing the secrets of atomic weapons.

C) free elections in Western Europe.

D) whether Truman or Stalin would lead postwar alliances.

E) who would control post-war Japan.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 702 [Factual]

5) By 1946, Great Britain and the United States were refusing to permit

A) France to invade West Germany.

B) the Soviet Union to take reparations from the industrial western zones of Germany.

C) the nuclear arming of Japan.

D) the Greek invasion of Turkey.

E) the Soviet Union to send arms to Eastern Europe.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 702 [Factual]


6) Which one of the following countries did NOT become politically controlled by the Soviet Union after World War II?

A) Poland

B) Belgium

C) Hungary

D) Bulgaria

E) Romania

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 702-703 [Factual]


7) Soviet bitterness toward the United States immediately after World War II was primarily a result of

A) American threats to take military action against Eastern Europe.

B) broken American promises regarding the future of Berlin.

C) the United States' refusal to provide economic aid to the Soviet Union.

D) personal differences between Truman and Stalin.

E) the United States' presence in West Germany.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 703 [Factual]


8) The Soviet Union first learned of the American atomic bomb

A) from Franklin D. Roosevelt.

B) through conversations between Truman and Stalin.

C) from the British and French.

D) through the use of espionage.

E) when the first one was dropped on Japan.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 703 [Factual]

9) The Baruch Plan

A) prevented a wide sharing of nuclear weapons information.

B) would have preserved the American monopoly on nuclear weapons.

C) was welcomed by the Soviet Union.

D) received little support from top American military leaders.

E) was never implemented.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 704 [Factual]


10) Which of the following individuals is incorrectly matched with his foreign policy activities?

A) Bernard Baruch/nuclear weapons

B) George Marshall/economic assistance for Western Europe

C) Dean Acheson/U.S. invasion of Cuba

D) George Kennan/containment policy

E) John Foster Dulles/Suez Canal crisis

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 703-705 [Factual]


11) As secretary of state, George C. Marshall relied heavily on the talents of

A) Dwight Eisenhower and George Patton.

B) Richard Nixon.

C) Dean Acheson and George Kennan.

D) Bernard Baruch.

E) John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 704 [Factual]





U.S. Marines in Korea 1950

U.S. Publication:

The Case for Communist Penetration

of Guatemala, 1957

12) The illustrations shown above portray events and perceptions that led directly to which of the following foreign policy ideas put forth by an American president?

A) Harry S. Truman's "containment" policy

B) The Truman Doctrine

C) John F. Kennedy's "flexible response"

D) Lyndon B. Johnson's "escalation" policy

E) Richard M. Nixon's "Nixon doctrine"

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 705 [Conceptual]
13) George Kennan's "containment" policy proposed

A) long-term neutrality for the United States with respect to European affairs.

B) a series of aggressive maneuvers toward the Soviet Union.

C) American vigilance regarding Soviet expansionist tendencies.

D) restrictions on American expansionist plans.

E) keeping nuclear weapons information a closely guarded secret.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 705 [Factual]

14) George Kennan believed firmly that

A) Congress should be allowed a leading role in foreign affairs.

B) public opinion should be of paramount importance in determining foreign policy.

C) American foreign policy should be left to the experts.

D) the Soviets posed no real threat to the United States.

E) "containment" in theory was a strong practice but might prove difficult to implement.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 705 [Factual]


15) The Truman Doctrine was developed as a response to problems in

A) Greece and Turkey.

B) Italy and France.

C) Syria and Lebanon.

D) Laos and Vietnam.

E) Hungary and Czechoslovakia.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 705 [Factual]




How Communism Works by the Catholic Library Services
16) The pamphlet shown above was typical of concerns that dominated which era of United States history?

A) Imperialism and World War I

B) Roaring Twenties and Jazz Age

C) the Great Depression and World War II

D) the cold war

E) 1950s and Rock 'n Roll

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 702-703 [Conceptual]


17) The Marshall Plan proposed

A) the infusion of massive amounts of American capital in Western Europe.

B) the rearming of Germany.

C) a massive military buildup in Europe.

D) a series of Western military alliances.

E) the division of Germany.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 705-706 [Factual]


18) Overall, the Marshall Plan

A) did little to halt Soviet encroachment in Western Europe.

B) failed as an economic measure.

C) received wholehearted support from the Soviets.

D) generated a broad industrial recovery in Western Europe.

E) had no effect on the U.S. economy.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 707 [Factual]


19) The North Atlantic Treaty Organization

A) received little support from European nations.

B) represented a departure from traditional American isolationism.

C) was perceived as nonthreatening by the Soviets.

D) continued the old American tradition of involvement in European alliances.

E) was opposed by the United Nations secretary-general.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 707 [Factual]


20) The NATO Treaty was signed in

A) 1945.

B) 1946.

C) 1947.

D) 1948.

E) 1949.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 707 [Factual]


21) NATO

A) had the effect of easing U.S.-Soviet tensions.

B) intensified Soviet fears of the West.

C) involved only the United States and major West European powers.

D) failed to radically affect European military strategy.

E) relied exclusively on European forces.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 707 [Factual]

22) The main Soviet response to containment was demonstrated by

A) their overthrow of the democratic government of Czechoslovakia.

B) the North Korean invasion of South Korea.

C) their blockade of Berlin.

D) the Communist revolution in China.

E) shooting down two American planes over East Germany.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 707 [Factual]


23) When the Soviet Union sealed off the city of Berlin in 1948, President Harry Truman

A) responded by invading Czechoslovakia.

B) threatened to drop nuclear weapons on Moscow.

C) organized a massive airlift to resupply the city.

D) declared war.

E) did nothing, fearing escalation to a "hot" war

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 707-708 [Factual]


24) The National Security Act of 1947 established the

A) Department of State.

B) Central Intelligence Agency.

C) Truman Doctrine.

D) Marshall Plan.

E) House Un-American Activities Committee.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 709 [Factual]


25) The passage of the National Security Act in 1947

A) indicated America's desire to decrease its military strength.

B) acted to coordinate and unify America's military establishment.

C) served only to further divide the Defense Department.

D) weakened the intelligence gathering capabilities of the United States.

E) added unnecessary bureaucracy to matters of defense.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 709 [Factual]

26) As a result of Cold War military reforms, the dominant branch of the American armed forces became the

A) navy.

B) army.

C) air force.

D) submarine forces.

E) marines.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 709 [Factual]


27) The defense policy statement known as NSC-68

A) led to a weakening of the American military.

B) showed the Truman administration's lack of determination to confront the Soviet threat.

C) emphasized the need to rely on diplomacy to deal with the Soviets.

D) symbolized a lessening of Cold War anxieties.

E) advocated a massive expansion of the American military.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 709 [Factual]


28) American policy toward Japan after World War II

A) allowed shared U.S.-Soviet responsibility for the Japanese islands.

B) emphasized the continuation of traditional Japanese institutions.

C) was aimed at preventing the recovery of the Japanese economy.

D) brought the transition of the Japanese government into a constitutional democracy.

E) was similar to American policy in Europe.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 709 [Factual]


29) Which one of the following was proof that President Harry Truman was determined to spend whatever was necessary to win the Cold War?

A) NSC-68

B) National Security Act

C) The White Paper on Formosa

D) National Defense Education Act

E) Marshall Plan

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 709 [Factual]

30) One of Chiang Kai-shek's biggest problems by 1945 was inflation, which had risen to ________ percent per year.

A) 60


B) 70

C) 80


D) 90

E) 100


Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 709 [Factual]


31) Republican senators blamed the Communist success in China on

A) American diplomats who sabotaged the Nationalist government.

B) the great personal popularity of Mao Tse-tung.

C) an overly aggressive American military policy.

D) the poor leadership of Chiang Kai-shek.

E) the large amount of military funding the Chinese Communists received from the Soviets.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 710 [Factual]


32) A significant aspect of the American response to the Communist triumph in China was its

A) decision to focus on Japan as its major Asian ally.

B) decision to launch the Korean War.

C) failure to observe other Communist threats in the region.

D) quick recognition of the new regime in China.

E) cessation of diplomatic relations with the Soviets.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 710 [Factual]


33) At the beginning of the Korean War, North Korea was

A) a colony of Japan.

B) a colony of China.

C) strongly supported by the Soviet Union.

D) a trustee state of the United Nations.

E) still recovering from the devastation of World War II.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 710 [Factual]

34) During the Korean War, General Douglas MacArthur

A) acted cautiously, always aware of the threat from China.

B) warned Truman against overly aggressive tactics.

C) cooperated with Truman in devising an effective strategy.

D) was overconfident and gave Truman bad advice.

E) was planning to run for president.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 711-712 [Factual]


35) In the Korean War, the Chinese threatened a massive invasion of Korea if the United States

A) invaded North Korea.

B) attempted to aid South Korea.

C) broke out of the Pusan perimeter.

D) did not withdraw its troops.

E) did not agree to peace talks.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 711 [Factual]


36) In the final analysis, the most significant result of the Korean War was

A) the final solution: the division of Korea.

B) the fact that it inhibited the Soviet Union's further expansionism.

C) that it reinforced Truman's popularity with the American people.

D) that it humiliated the United States in the eyes of the world.

E) that it brought about massive American rearmament.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 712 [Factual]


37) A major political consequence of the Cold War was that

A) Harry Truman and the Democrats were able to strengthen their political position.

B) Dwight D. Eisenhower was discredited.

C) Republicans used public dissatisfaction with the Cold War to strengthen their hand.

D) American liberals found their strength dramatically increased.

E) it eased American fears about the Soviet threat.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 712-713 [Factual]

38) By 1946, American labor had a new nickname for Truman.

A) "Labor's Best Friend"

B) "Commander"

C) "Give 'em hell, Harry"

D) "Our Man Harry"

E) "No. 1 Strikebreaker"

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 713 [Factual]


39) When Congress voted to end wartime price controls, prices rose ________ percent in two years.

A) 15


B) 20

C) 25


D) 30

E) 35


Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 713 [Factual]


40) The leader of the Dixiecrats in the election of 1948 was

A) Henry Wallace.

B) Thomas Dewey.

C) Strom Thurmond.

D) George C. Marshall.

E) Dean Rusk.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 713-714 [Factual]


41) Truman's handling of the Berlin crisis

A) was an important factor in his victory in the election of 1948.

B) showed his indecisiveness in confronting the Soviet threat.

C) caused many to question his leadership abilities.

D) led the Soviets to view him as a weak president.

E) angered American citizens.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 714 [Factual]

42) The most famous disclosure of espionage activities in the U.S. government in the late 1940s involved the case of

A) Alger Hiss.

B) Richard Nixon.

C) Whittaker Chambers.

D) Herbert Philbrick.

E) the Rosenbergs.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 714-715 [Factual]


43) Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

A) helped the CIA break a Soviet spy ring in the United States.

B) were executed for passing American atomic secrets to the Soviet Union.

C) opposed the Soviet attempt to blockade Berlin.

D) were responsible for exposing Alger Hiss as a communist.

E) admitted their guilt.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 715 [Factual]


44) The leading figure of the Red Scare of the early 1950s was

A) Dwight D. Eisenhower.

B) Joseph McCarthy.

C) Dean Acheson.

D) Richard M. Nixon.

E) Roy Cohn.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 715-716 [Factual]


45) During the Eisenhower administration, the U.S. military relied mainly on

A) a massive buildup of conventional forces.

B) highly trained special forces.

C) the air force and its nuclear striking power.

D) nuclear ballistic missile submarines.

E) involvement in limited wars to halt Soviet aggression.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 719 [Factual]

46) Eisenhower's secretary of state was

A) Dean Acheson.

B) George Kennan.

C) Dean Rusk.

D) Averell Harriman.

E) John Foster Dulles.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 718 [Factual]


47) The U.S. admiral calling for U.S. military assistance to prevent a French defeat in Vietnam in 1954 was

A) John Dulles.

B) Richard Nixon.

C) Gary Powers.

D) Arthur Radford.

E) Chester Nimitz.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 719 [Factual]


48) President Eisenhower's first serious foreign policy crisis came when

A) communist China attacked Formosa.

B) North Korea attacked South Korea.

C) the French asked the U.S. for assistance in Vietnam.

D) Egypt seized the Suez Canal.

E) the Soviet Union cut off land access to Berlin.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 719 [Factual]


49) In 1954, what was the first test of Eisenhower's new policy to contain Chinese communism?

A) Japan

B) Manchuria

C) the Pacific Islands

D) Eastern Europe

E) the Formosa Straits

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 720 [Factual]

50) During the Cold War, President Eisenhower did each of the following EXCEPT

A) authorize a CIA overthrow of a democratically elected government in Iraq.

B) end the Korean War.

C) accept Soviet domination of eastern Europe.

D) authorize spy plane overflights of the Soviet Union.

E) remain calm in times of great stress.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 717-721 [Factual]


51) Stalin was succeeded by

A) Nikita Khrushchev.

B) Leonid Breshnev.

C) V. I. Lenin.

D) Yuri Andropov.

E) Yuri Gregorin.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 721 [Factual]


52) When the Soviet Union shot down a United States spy plane in 1960, the event became known as the ________ crisis.

A) NSC-68

B) U-2

C) B-52


D) Berlin

E) hostage

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 724 [Factual]


28.2 True/False Questions
1) After World War II, the United States spent billions helping to rebuild the Soviet Union.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 703 [Factual]
2) The Baruch Plan called for the United States to unilaterally destroy its stockpile of nuclear weapons.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 704 [Factual]

3) In its initial plans, the United States intended to give up its monopoly on atomic weapons and turn control of fissionable material, processing plants, and, ultimately, its stockpile of bombs over to an international agency.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 704 [Factual]


4) The Marshall Plan was a great political and economic success for the United States.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 705-707 [Factual]
5) By convincing the Soviets of the firm intentions of the United States and its allies, NATO had the effect of de-escalating the Cold War.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 707 [Factual]
6) In 1949 Communist forces took control of China.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 710 [Factual]
7) The American public reacted well when Truman relieved MacArthur from duty.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 712 [Factual]
8) Senator Joseph McCarthy gained great credibility during the Red Scare of the 1950s because of his scrupulous attention to validated facts concerning Communist espionage activities in the United States.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 715-716 [Factual]
9) During the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954, the U.S. provided air strikes in support of French troops.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 719 [Factual]
10) Khrushchev was the Soviet leader who famously proclaimed, "We will bury you!"

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 724 [Factual]

28.3 Essay Questions


1) How did the origins of the Cold War reflect different American and Soviet traditions, as well as their different needs and interests in Europe after World War II?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 700-703 [Factual]


2) What was the policy of "containment"? Who were its leading proponents, and how did they implement this policy between 1947 and 1950?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 704-705, 707-708 [Factual]


3) How did the Cold War bring about reforms in the United States military and intelligence establishments in the 1940s and 1950s?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 707-709 [Factual]


4) Describe U.S. foreign policy toward China between 1945 and 1960.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 709-711, 719-720 [Factual]


5) Describe President Eisenhower's foreign policy approach toward the Soviet Union.

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 719, 721, 724-725 [Factual]



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