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About the Guide 3 Student Questions 4 Answers to Student Questions 6 ChemMatters Puzzle: Sudoku by the (Chemical) Numbers 10


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April 2014 Teacher's Guide
Table of Contents



About the Guide 3

Student Questions 4

Answers to Student Questions 6

ChemMatters Puzzle: Sudoku by the (Chemical) Numbers 10

12



Answers to the ChemMatters Puzzle 13

National Science Education Standards (NSES) Correlations 15

Next-Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Correlations 16

Common Core State Standards Connections 18

Anticipation Guides 19

(Under)Arm Yourself with Chemistry! 20

A Solar Future 21

Skin Color: A Question of Chemistry 22

Sinkholes: Chemistry Goes Deep 23

Nail Polish: Cross-Linked Color on the Move 24

(Under)Arm Yourself with Chemistry! 26

A Solar Future 27

Skin Color: A Question of Chemistry 28

Sinkholes: Chemistry Goes Deep 29

Nail Polish: Cross-Linked Color on the Move 30

(Under)Arm Yourself with Chemistry 31

Background Information (teacher information) 31

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 52

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 53

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 54

In-class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 54

Out-of-class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 55

References (non-Web-based information sources) 56

Web Sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 57

A Solar Future 61

Background Information (teacher information) 61

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 70

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 71

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 71

In-class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 72

Out-of-class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 73

References (non-Web-based information sources) 74

Web Sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 75

SkinColor: A Question of Chemistry 78

Background Information (teacher information) 78

Connections to Chemistry Concepts
(for correlation to course curriculum) 85

Possible Student Misconceptions


(to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 86

Anticipating Student Questions


(answers to questions students might ask in class) 87

In-class Activities


(lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 88

Out-of-class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 88

References (non-Web-based information sources) 89

Web Sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 89



Sinkholes: Chemistry Goes Deep 92

Background Information (teacher information) 92

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 99

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 100

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 100

In-class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 100

Out-of-class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 101

References (non-Web-based information sources) 101

Web Sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 102

Nail Polish: Cross-Linked Color on the Move 104

Background Information (teacher information) 104

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 112

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 112

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 112

In-class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 113

Out-of-class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 113

References (non-Web-based information sources) 114

Web Sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 114

General Web References (Web information not solely related to article topic) 115


About the Guide

Teacher’s Guide editors William Bleam, Donald McKinney, Ronald Tempest, and Erica K. Jacobsen created the Teacher’s Guide article material. E-mail: bbleam@verizon.net


Susan Cooper prepared the national science education content, anticipation guides, and reading guides.
David Olney created the puzzle.

E-mail: djolney@verizon.net


Patrice Pages, ChemMatters editor, coordinated production and prepared the Microsoft Word and PDF versions of the Teacher’s Guide. E-mail: chemmatters@acs.org
Articles from past issues of ChemMatters can be accessed from a CD that is available from the American Chemical Society for $30. The CD contains all ChemMatters issues from February 1983 to April 2008.
The ChemMatters CD includes an Index that covers all issues from February 1983 to April 2008.
The ChemMatters CD can be purchased by calling 1-800-227-5558.
Purchase information can be found online at www.acs.org/chemmatters

Student Questions


(from the articles)
(Under)Arm Yourself with Chemistry!


    1. Write the name and the chemical formula of the compound responsible for the smell in human sweat.

    2. According to the article, how are perfumes and deodorants alike? How are they different?

    3. Name two chemicals that were used originally in deodorants.

    4. In the answer to the previous question, what do the two substances have in common?

    5. Why is formaldehyde no longer used in deodorants?

    6. How does zinc oxide kill bacteria?

    7. What’s the difference between deodorants and antiperspirants?

    8. What group of compounds do almost all antiperspirants contain?

    9. Name the two different types of sweat glands in your underarms.

    10. What role do solvents play in a successful underarm deodorant?

    11. How do natural “deodorant crystals” work?



A Solar Future


  1. Identify the two basic uses for solar energy described in the article.

  2. According to the article, solar power currently provides what percent of the world’s energy?

  3. What is a semiconductor?

  4. Describe the energy conversion in a solar cell.

  5. Describe the energy conversion in a solar thermal flat-plate collector.

  6. Identify two environmental effects of solar-powered cars.

  7. Describe the operation of the solar power plant mentioned in the article.



Skin Color: A Question of Chemistry


  1. What is the function of melanin in our skin?

  2. Why do we want protection from the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation?

  3. Why is it a problem to have unpaired electrons in our DNA?

  4. What is one mechanism by which it is thought melanin molecules protect our cells, particularly the DNA inside the cells?

  5. What are the differences in melanin content between dark skin, light skin, and the skin of albinos?

  6. If all people (except albinos) have the same number of melanocytes (that produce melanin), why do people with different skin color have different amounts of melanin in their skin?

  7. How are the amounts of melanin in the skin and the production of vitamin D related?

  8. Why do we need vitamin D?



Sinkholes: Chemistry Goes Deep


  1. What percent of the land area in the U.S. is susceptible to sinkhole formation?

  2. What are the major features of karst topography where sinkholes often form?

  3. What is the chemical name and formula for limestone?

  4. What is the source of most calcium carbonate in limestone deposits?

  5. Name three things that are made of calcium carbonate, in addition to limestone.

  6. What would you observe if you place an egg shell in a container of vinegar?

  7. What is the pH of rain, and is that acidic or basic?

  8. Name the acid that forms when water and carbon dioxide react. Is it a strong or weak acid?

  9. What are the warning signs that a sinkhole may be forming?



Nail Polish: Cross-Linked Color on the Move


  1. What is the purpose of a film-former in nail polish? What chemical compound is most commonly used as a film-former?

  2. What is the purpose of a solvent in nail polish? What chemical compounds are the most common nail polish solvents?

  3. What is the purpose of a resin in nail polish? What type of material are resins?

  4. What is the purpose of a plasticizer in nail polish? Describe how its chemical action achieves this purpose.

  5. What is the purpose of a pigment in nail polish? List several common pigments used in polish.

  6. How is gel nail polish different from regular nail polish?

  7. Name some compounds commonly used as nail polish removers.

  8. Describe how nail polish remover works to take off nail polish.


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