A strategy for trade monitoring and substitution of the organs of threatened animals Jiao-yang Luo1, Dan Yan1, Jing-yuan Song2, Da Zhang1, Xiao-yan Xing1, Yu-mei Han1, Mei-hua Yang2, Xiao-ping Dong3, Cheng Peng3, Shi-lin Chen2
Jiao-yang Luo1, Dan Yan1, Jing-yuan Song2, Da Zhang1, Xiao-yan Xing1, Yu-mei Han1, Mei-hua Yang2, Xiao-ping Dong3, Cheng Peng3, Shi-lin Chen2, Xiao-he Xiao1 1 China Military Institute of Chinese Medicine, Integrative Medical Center of the 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039, P.R. China; 2 Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100094, P.R. China; 3 College of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Chinese Traditional Medicine, Chengdu 610075, P.R. China
Table S1. GenBank accessions of 241 closely related species used to obtain ADDs; the COI sequences were cropped from the complete coding sequences and analyzed.
GenBank accessions of close-related species of MAHS
Table S2. Endotoxin contents in rabbit sera at 1.5 h as determined using a dynamic nephelometric method.
DD: data deficient; NL: not listed; √ medicinal parts or other applications; × no alternative use; ⊙substitutes; ◇alternative application scope; △ penitential recommendation by the present study.
Figure S1. Distribution of some endangered and threatened species examined in this study. (A) General distribution of the species in the wild; (B) detailed distribution of endangered and threatened species. (The information of the maps was derived from investments made in TM in China, and we hold the copyright of this figure.)
Figure S2. Neighbor-joining tree based on Kimura 2-parameter distances for 46 COI gene sequences.
Figure S3. Barcoding gap test. The relative distribution of inter- and intraspecific variations.
Figure S4. Antipyretic activities of ADDs. (A) Maximum changes in body temperature in the presence of various ADDs; (B) PGE2 level in rabbit serum; (C) PGE1 level in rabbit serum; (D) TNF-α level in rabbit serum; (E) d-values among the temperatures.
Figure S5. The effects of ADDs on liver microsomes. (A) HFP-t curves of the growth of liver microsomes in the presence of ADDs in vitro, within which (a)-(e) represent velvet antler group, antler group, blank control, domestic group and saiga antelope group, respectively; (B) total heat output of the heat-flow power under the action of various ADDs; (C) inhibition ratios of the ADDs on the growth of liver microsomes in vitro.
Figure S6. The effects of various ADDs on spleen lymphocytes. (A) Kunming mice; (B) cultured spleen lymphocytes; (C) microcalorimetry; (D) HFP-t curves of the growth and metabolism of spleen lymphocytes in the presence of ADDs, within which (a)-(h) represent velvet antler group, domestic goat group, antler group, blank group, Chinese pangolin group, saiga antelope group, Asian water buffalo group, and Chinese softshell turtle group, respectively; (E) parameters extracted from the HFP-t curves; (F) comparison of the values of the heat-flow power in the presence of various ADDs; (G) comparison of the values of the total heat output in the presence of various ADDs.
Figure S7. Investigation of the temperature gradients in the mouse thermotaxis study.
Figure S8. Investigation of the observation time in the mouse thermotaxis study.
Figure S9. The effects of ADDs on mouse thermotaxis. (A) Temperature-controlled setup; (B) remote monitoring system; (C) data-processing system; (D): comparison of the proportion of animals in the warm zone in the presence of various ADDs; (E) comparison of the 30 min moving distances in the presence of various ADDs; (F) comparison of times taken to cross from one zone to another in the presence of various ADDs; (G) 5-HT levels in mouse sera; (H) cAMP levels in mouse sera; (I) cGMP levels in mouse sera; (J) cAMP/cGMP values.
Figure S10. Determination of 5-HT, cAMP, and cGMP levels in the brain tissues of mice. (A) 5-HT level in the brain tissues of mice; (B) cAMP level in the brain tissues of mice; (C) cGMP level in the brain tissues of mice; (D) cAMP /cGMP values.