|a. Brief Resume Of Intended Work
a.1 Need for Study:
Plant and plant product are part of the vegetarian diet and a number of them exhibit medicinal properties. Several Indian plants are also being used in Ayurveda and Siddha medicinally. The medicinal properties of several plants have been documented in ancient Indian literature and the properties have been found to be effective in the treatment of disease.1
Diuretics are the drugs that increase the excretion of sodium & water from the body. Diuretics play an important role in situation of fluid overload, like acute and chronic renal failure, hypercalciurea, and cirrhosis of liver and antihypertensive agent. Many Indigenous drugs have been claimed to have diuretic effect in Ayurvedic system of medicine. Among of them, some plants like Dolichos biflorous, Tfibulus terrestris, Boerhaavia repens, Borehaavia rependa have shown excellent diuretic activity.2
A number of diuretics like mannitol, thiazide, and frusemide are used generally. Some unwanted effect are common with these drugs like potassium loss or hypokalaemia , hypovolaemia and hypotension in elderly patient, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypersensitivity reaction.3There is a need for more effective and less toxic diuretics.
The plant cuscuta reflexa Roxb.Corom is a perennial herb of Convolvulaceae family ,commonly known as Akashbela in Hindi. The plant distributed throughout India, Ceylon-Malaya.This plant traditionally used as Expectorant, Carminative, Tonic, Purgative Antihelmentic, in Jaundice, in Eye and Heart disease.4 The Cuscuta reflexa has been used medicinally as Antispasmodic activity, Heamodynamic activity, Bradycardia,5 Antisteroidogenic activity of methanolic extract,6 Antihypertensive, Muscle relaxant, & cardiotonic7 , psychopharmacological effect of petroleum ether extracts8, Antiviral activity, Anticonvulsent activity of mthanolic extract9 etc. On the basis of phytochemical study many chemical constituents isolated from this plant like Cuscutin, Amarbelin, beta-sterol, Stigmasterol, Kaempferol, Dulcitol, Myricetin, Qurecetin, Coumarin and Oleanolic acid etc.10
The other plant Cassytha filiformis Linn.is perennial and parasitic, herbaceous leafless plant belong to family Lauraceae. This plant is distributed throughout India and medicinally used in china, Indo china, Madagascar and South Africa. This plant traditionally used for cleansing inveterate ulcer, strengthen the hair, and inflamed eyes, and chronic dysentery.4 This plant has been used medicinally as antiplatelet and vasorelaxant activity of aporphine alkaloid.11 antitrypnosomal activity12 and alpha-adrenoreceptar antagonist13, The isolated compound from this plant are Aporphine alkaloid, oxo-aporphine alkaloid, cassyformine, filiformine, cathaformine, lignan, actinodophine, and octenine etc.14
Two widely available plant material Cuscuta reflexa and Cassytha filiformis are used as diuretics. Since the diuretic activity of these substance has not be investigated in scientifically control studies, the aim of the present study to evaluate the diuretic potential of Cuscuta reflexa and Cassytha filiformis plants .The plant cassytha filiformis is used as a substitute for cuscuta reflexa in Ayurveda.4 For this purpose different methodologies were used to estimate their activity.
a.1 Review of literature :
Literature surveys on diuretic activity are carried out by referring various scientific journals, internet and helinet facility.
Some pharmacological activity has been reported on the Cuscuta reflexa.
Singh et al (1973) has been reportd some pharmacological activity and show that alcoholic extract of this plant has positive ionotropic action on the perfused frog heart and studies on Smoth Muscle suggest that the extract have direct depressant action on rabbit duodenum .7
Gupta et al (2003) have reported Antisteroidogenic activity of methanolic extract on female mouse and suggest that the cholesterol and Ascorbic acid content in ovaries were significantly increase in treated mice 6,
Pal et al (2003)evaluate Psychopharmacological effect of petroleum ether extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. stem , using swiss albino mice and found significant reduction in spontaneous activity by rotarod and significant analgesic properties .8
Gupta et al (2003) has studied on brain biogenic amine of methanolic extract of Cuscuta refluxa stem in mice and revealed that plant extract showed astringent and anticonvulsive property by altering the level of catecholamine and brain amino acid in mice .9.
Mohammad Ali versiani (2004) , university of karanchi , have reported many chemical constituent isolated from this plant like cuscutin , Amarbelin, beta-sterol ,stigmasterol , Kaempferol , dulcitol , myricetin ,qrecetin , coumarin and oleanolic acid etc.10
Several pharmacological activity has been reported on the plant Cassytha filiformis.
Chang et al (1997) found to be an alpha adreno receptor antagonist with pharmacological evaluation of ocoteine as alpha adreno-receptor antagonist in rat thoracic aorta 13 from the plant cassytha filiformis
Chang et al, (1998) have evaluated the Antiplatelet and Vasoreaxing action of Aporphinoids using methanolic extract of the fresh herb of Cassytha filiformis and show potent inhibitory activity of platelet aggregation by inducing ADP and Arachidonic acid 11
Fang et al (1998) isolated compound from this plant are Aporphine alkaloid, oxo-aporphine alkaloid, cassyformine, filiformine, cathaformine, lignan, actinodophine, and octenine etc.14
Hoet et al (2004) have , reported Antitrypnosomal activity, cytotoxicity & interaction with DNA and topoisomerase and evaluated the invitro activity of alkaloid extract , results indicate that aporphine alkaloid
effectively bind to DNA and biochemical experiment showed that actinodophine , cassythine also interfere
with catalytic activity of topoisomerase 12,
Survey reveals that not any scientific work has been reported on the diuretic activity of plant Cuscuta
reflexa and Cassytha filiformis..
a.3 Objective of study:
The objectives of the proposed work are:
1) Collection of the plant material.
2) Preparation of the raw material for study.
3) Extraction of raw plant material.
4) Pharmacological study of various extracts.
5) Phytochemical screening of the activity.
6) Identification of active constituents.
b. Material and Method (b1& b2)
The stem part of the plant Cuscuta reflexa and Cassytha filiformis was collected locally from natural sources in Shimoga region and plant identified with the help of botanist.
The stem part of both plant dried under shade and coarsely powdered & store under air tight container for the use .
Successive extraction of both plant material will carried out and subjected it for screening to diuretic activity according to lipischitz et al by using Swiss albino mice.
All possible active constituents identified by the phytochemical investigation, which are responsible for activity
b.1 Does this study require any investigation or interventation to be conducted on patients or other humans or animals? If so, please describe briefly.
Swiss albino rats will be used for evaluation of activity of both drug extracts
b.2Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in case of b.1
Ethical clearance is provided by the institution
NCP/IAEC: Clear/05/4/2007-2008, Dated 28/11/2007
C. List of references:
Naik G.H , Priyadarsini K.I. , Satav J.G, Banavalikar M.M. , Sohoni D.P. Biyani M. K. et al . Comparative antioxidant activity of individual herbal components used in Ayurvedic medicine . Phyt.2003; 63: 97-104.
Samiulla D.S., Harish M.S. Effect of NR-AG –I & NR –II on Diuretic activity in rat . Ind. J. of Pharmacol. 2000; 32: 112-113.
3) Rang H.P. , Dale M. M., Ritter J.M. , Moore P.K. 5th ed.2003.
4) Kirtikar K.R. and Basu B.D . Indian Medicinal Plant . 2nd ed.vol-3rd . 1991.
Anwar–Ul Hassan Gilani , Khalid Aftab . Pharmacological action of cuscuta reflexa . Int.j. pharmacogn.1992; 30: 296 .
Gupta M., Mazumdar U.K., Pal D.K.,Bhattacharya.S. Anti-steroidogenic activity of methanolic extract of Cuscuta reflexa roxb. Stem & Corchorus olitorius Linn. Seed in mouse ovary . Ind.j.Exp. Biol . 20003; jun. 41 (6): 641-4.
Singh.G.S and Garg.K.N. Some pharmacological studies on Cuscuta eflexa plant Ind.I.Pharmac.,1973;5(2):344-345
Pal .D, Panda C., Sinhababu S., Dutta A., Bhattacharya S. Evaluation of Psychopharmacological effect of petroleum ether extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Stem in mice . Acta Pol Pharm. 2003; nov-dec, 60(6): 481-6.
Gupta M, Mazumdar UK, Bhattacharya S, Chakrabarty S.Studies on brain biogenic amines in methanolic extract of cuscuta reflexa Roxb. & Corchorus olitorius Linn seed treated mice. Acta Pol Pharm2003;may-jun . 60(3): 207-10.
Versiani Mohammad Ali , University of karanchi, Studies in the chemical constituent H.E.J. research institute of chemistry .20004;
11) Chang Yang Wu, Chang Fang-Rong , Chao Ya- Chief , Teng Che- Ming , Aniplatelt & vasorelaxing
action of aporphinoids from Cassytha filiformis. Phyt. Research, 1998; 12 (S1):539-541.
Hoet. S., Stévigny C., Block. S., Opperdoes. F., Colson. P., Baldeyrou.B. et al , Alkaloid from Cassytha filiformis & related aporphines: Antitrpnosomal activity , cytotoxicity & intraction with DNA & topoisomerases. Plant med. 2004;may 70: 407-13.
Chang C.W. , Ko F N , Su M J., Wu Y.C, Teng ,C M Pharmacological evaluation of ocoteine ,isolated compound from Cassytha filiformis in rat thoracic aorta Jpn. j .pharmcol. 1997; mar. 73(3):207.
14) Chang Fang-Rong , Chao Ya- Chief , Teng Che- Ming & Chang Yang Wu ,Chemical constituents from
Cassytha filiformis . J.Nat. Prod., 1998;61(7):863-866
15) Mukherjee.Pulok .k , Quality control of Herbal drugs, 1st ed. 2002