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高级英语教案 Teaching Plan for Advanced English 江西师范大学外国语学院 课程名称:高级英语 教学对象:


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高级英语教案

Teaching Plan

for Advanced English

江西师范大学外国语学院

课程名称:高级英语

教学对象:英语本科三年级学生

教学内容:ADVANCED ENGLISH (Book One & Book Two)

教学重点:

1. 阅读,写作以及翻译方面的训练

2. 文化背景知识

3 文章的结构,文体以及修辞

4 文章中的难句的分析以及生动的表达法的学习

5 对文章的观点见解的讨论

教学目标:


  1. 提高学生理解能力和欣赏水平

  2. 提高学生的写作水平

3. 加深学生对文化背景的了解

4 培养学生独立,批判地思考问题的习惯以及能力

5 培养学生自主学习的能力

每周学时:4节(每班)
考试方式:形成性评价与终结性评价相结合

教学方法:学生为中心,任务教学

教学形式:教师讲授,学生讨论相结合

Unit One The Middle Eastern Bazaar

Part I: Pre-reading Questions


  1. What is a bazaar? Can you name some of the Middle Eastern Bazaar?

  2. Name all the markets in the bazaar.

  3. Pick out from the text the words used to describe:

Light and heat/sound and movement

Part II: Background Information

The Middle East: The Middle East (or, formerly more common, the Near East[1]) is a region that spans southwestern Asia, southeastern Europe, and northeastern Africa. It has no clear boundaries, often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East.

The history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, and throughout its history the Middle East has been a major centre of world affairs. The Middle East is also the historical origin of three of the world’s major religions - Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The Middle East generally has an arid and hot climate, with several major rivers providing for irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas. Many countries located around the Persian Gulf have large quantities of crude oil. In modern times the Middle East remains a strategically, economically, politically, culturally and religiously sensitive region.

Some of the countries in the Middle East : Turkey, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Yemen, Israel, Lebanon….

Bazaar:

A bazaar is a permanent merchandising area, marketplace, or street of shops where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The word derives from the Persian word bāzār, the etymology of which goes back to the Middle Persian word baha-char, meaning "the place of prices".[1]



The Bazaar of Isfahan is one of the oldest and largest bazaars of the Middle East, dating back to the 17th century A.D. The bazaar is a vaulted two kilometer street linking the old city with the new.[

The Grand Bazaar (Turkish: Kapalıçarşı, meaning Covered Bazaar) in Istanbul is one of the largest and oldest covered markets in the world, with more than 58 covered streets and over 1,200 shops which attract between 250,000 and 400,000 visitors daily.



Chandni Chowk originally meaning moonlit square or market, is one of the oldest and busiest markets in central north Delhi, India.

Part III Writing Workshop

Brainstorming

1 What type of writing is it? Why (back your answer with reasons, the characteristics of the type of writing in question and some examples from the text)

Descriptive Writing

2 What is/ the characteristics of descriptive writing?

Suggested answer


  1. Goal: Descriptive writing vividly portrays a person, place, or thing in such a way that the reader can visualize the topic and enter into the writer’s experience.

2The general characteristics of descriptive writing include:

  • elaborate use of sensory language (Paragraph 1,din,tinkling…)(pre-modified nouns; exciting and active verbs, suitable vocabulary)

  • rich, vivid, and lively detail (p2-3, paragraph 5)

  • figurative language such as simile, hyperbole, metaphor,  symbolism and personification (p1 goods of every conceivable kind)

  • showing, rather than telling through the use of active verbs and precise modifiers (paragraph 1 the din of ..crying their wares..)

3)Use : Descriptive writing appears almost everywhere and is often included in other genre, such as in a descriptive introduction of a character in a narrative.

4) Two types: objective description (observer-suspend judgment) and subjective description (commentator or critics-to judge, comment or criticize-strong personal flavor and preference)



5) Good Descriptive Writing
















1.  Good descriptive writing includes many vivid sensory details that
paint a picture and appeals to all of the reader's senses of sight,
hearing, touch, smell and taste when appropriate.   Descriptive writing
may also paint pictures of the feelings the person, place or thing
invokes in the writer.  

2.  Good descriptive writing often makes use of figurative language


such as analogies, similes and metaphors to help paint the picture in
the reader's mind.

3.  Good descriptive writing uses precise language.  General


adjectives, nouns, and passive verbs do not have a place in good
descriptive writing.  Use specific adjectives and nouns and strong
action verbs to give life to the picture you are painting in the reader's
mind.

4.  Good descriptive writing is organized.  Some ways to organize


descriptive writing include: chronological (time), spatial (location), and
order of importance.  When describing a person, you might begin with
a physical description, followed by how that person thinks, feels and
acts.


































How to write a descriptive writing

Exercise one: chocolate

Think of at least five words to describe a piece of chocolate; (soft, smooth, rich, divine,) (wrapped, swathed, draped, buried, enrobed)…

think of ways to describe how it tastes.

Examples:

Vanilla Flourish: rich dark chocolate covers a luxurious vanilla flavor fudge (软糖)center

Hazelnut in Gold:Soft caramel elegantly enrobes a whole hazelnut(榛子)

Roasted Nut Harvest: Smooth hazelnut praline draped in rich dark chocolate

Honeycomb Jewel: Honeycomb flavor pieces, buried little treasures, within an island of dark chocolate

Exercise Two: Instructions:


Here is an effective topic sentence for a descriptive paragraph:

My most valuable possession is an old, slightly warped, blond guitar--the first instrument that I ever taught myself how to play.

This sentence not only identifies the prized belonging ("an old, slightly warped, blond guitar") but also suggests why the writer values it ("the first instrument that I ever taught myself how to play"). Some of the sentences below support this topic sentence with specific descriptive details. Others, however, offer information that would be inappropriate in a unified descriptive paragraph. Read the sentences carefully, and then pick out only those that support the topic sentence with precise descriptive details. When you're done, compare your responses with the suggested answers at the bottom of this page.


  1. It is a Madeira folk guitar, all scuffed and scratched and finger-printed.

  2. My grandparents gave it to me on my thirteenth birthday.

  3. I think they bought it at the Music Lovers Shop in Rochester where they used to live.

  4. At the top is a bramble of copper-wound strings, each one hooked through the eye of a silver tuning key.

  5. Although copper strings are much harder on the fingers than nylon strings, they sound much better than the nylon ones.

  6. The strings are stretched down a long slim neck.

  7. The frets on the neck are tarnished, and the wood has been worn down by years of fingers pressing chords.

  8. It was three months before I could even tune the guitar properly, and another few months before I could manage the basic chords.

  9. You have to be very patient when first learning how to play the guitar.

  10. You should set aside a certain time each day for practice.

  11. The body of the Madeira is shaped like an enormous yellow pear, one that has been slightly damaged in shipping.

  12. A guitar can be awkward to hold, particularly if it seems bigger than you are, but you need to learn how to hold it properly if you're ever going to play it right.

  13. I usually play sitting down because it's more comfortable that way.

  14. The blond wood has been chipped and gouged to gray, particularly where the pick guard fell off years ago.

  15. I have a Gibson now and hardly ever play the Madeira any more.

Suggested Answers:
The following sentences support the topic sentence with precise descriptive details: 1, 4, 6, 7, 11, and 14.

Exercise Three

Here's the topic sentence of a descriptive paragraph titled "The Candle":

I treasure my candle not for its beauty, its sentimental value, or even its usefulness, but for its simple, stark ugliness.

The rest of the paragraph appears below. However, the sentences have been rearranged so that the descriptions appear in no logical order. Reorder the sentences to create a clear, well-organized paragraph.


  1. Rising crookedly out of the cup and collar is the candle, a pitifully short, stubby object.

  2. Abandoned by a previous occupant of my room, the candle squats on the window sill, anchored by cobwebs and surrounded by dead flies.

  3. This ugly little memorial consists of three parts: the base, the reflector, and the candle itself.

  4. This aluminum flower is actually a wrinkled old Christmas light collar.

  5. The base is a white, coffee-stained Styrofoam cup, its wide mouth pressed to the sill.

  6. And by lighting the wick, any time I choose, I can melt this ugly candle away.

  7. From the bottom of the cup (which is the top of the base) sprouts a space-age daisy: red, green, and silver petals intended to collect wax and reflect candle light.

  8. The candle is about the same size and color as a man's thumb, beaded with little warts of wax down the sides and topped by a tiny bent wick.

Suggested Rearrangement of Sentences:
2, 3, 5, 7, 4, 1, 8, 6

Home work:



  1. Select one of your belongings and then drafting a list of details that describe it. Next, you will put these details into sentences and organize the sentences into a paragraph. Finally, you will revise the paragraph to make sure that it is unified and clearly organized.

  2. Pick 10-20 words (sensory words or action verbs) in the passage and use them to write a paragraph of description.

Part IV General Structure

Question: How many parts will you divide the passage into? Give a subtitle to each part.

Part One: ( para. 1) General atmosphere and the entrance

Topic Sentence: The Middle Eastern...takes you ...years.


  antiquity, ancientness, liveliness,

self-sufficient, simple, not sophisticated, vigorous,

Part II (para2) the cloth market

Part III (Paras3-4) one of the peculiarities---the way business (negotiation) is done

Part IV (One of the most picturesque) the coppersmith market and etc.

Part V (Perhaps the most unforgettable) the mill where linseed oil is made



Part V Detailed Discussion

1. Middle East: Southeast Asia and Northeast Africa, including the Near East and Iran and Afghanistan.


Near Ease: the Arabian Peninsula ( Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrein, and Kuwait), Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt and Sudan.1. Middle East: Southeast Asia and Northeast Africa, including the Near East and Iran and Afghanistan.
Near Ease: the Arabian Peninsula ( Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrein, and Kuwait), Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt and Sudan.
Far East: China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and East Siberia
  2. particular: special, single and different from others. When sth. is particular, we mean it is the single or an example of the whole under consideration. the term is clearly opposed to general and that it is a close synonym of "single".
Particular is also often used in the sense of special.
I have sth. very particular (special) to say to Mr. Clinton.
She always took particular (special) notice of me.
On this particular (single) day we had to be at school early.
I don't like this particular (single) hat, but the others are quite nice.
  3. Gothic-arched: a type of architecture (see. ALD, church picture)
Goth: one of the German tribes
Arch: a curved top sometimes with a central point resting on 2 supports as above a door.
aged: a. [d d]
My son is aged 10.
When he was aged 6, he went to school.
a middle aged couple
b. [d id] ancient
He is aged; her aged grandfather
medicare for the sick & aged
  4. glare: shining intensely, harshly, uncomfortably, and too strong; in a way unpleasant to the eyes
  5. cavern: a large deep cave (hollow place in the side of a cliff or hill, or underground), closed roofed place. Here in the text we can see that it is a long, narrow, dark street or workshops and stores with some sort of roof over them.
  6. losing itself in the shadowy distance: in the farthest distance everything becomes obscure, unclear, or only dimly visible in the dark surroundings.
lose: come to be without
shadow: greater darkness where direct light, esp. sunlight, is blocked by sth.; a dark shape
shadowy: hard to see or know about clearly, not distinct, dim
Here shadowy suggests the changing of having and not having light, the shifting of lightness and darkness. There may be some spots of brightness in the dark.
  7. harmonious:
harmony: musical notes combined together in a pleasant sounding way
tinkle: to make light metallic sound
cf:
jingle: light tinkling sound
The rain tinkled on the metal roof.
She laughed heartily, a sound as cool as ice tinkling in the glass.
to tinkle coins together
  8. throng: large crowd of people or things, a crowd of people busy doing sth. searching up and down, engaging in some kind of activity
cf: crowd: general term, large number of people together, but without order or organization.
Crowd basically implies a close gathering and pressing together.
The boulevard was crammed with gay, laughing crowds.
Throng varies so little in meaning from crowd that the two words are often used interchangeably without loss. Throng sometimes carries the stronger implication of movement and of pushing and the weaker implication of density.
Throngs circulating through the streets.
The pre-Xmas sale attracted a throng of shoppers.
  9. thread: make one's way carefully, implies zigzag, roundabouts
The river threads between the mountains.
  10. roadway:
a. central part used by wheeled traffic, the middle part of a road where vehicles drive
b. a strip of land over which a road passes
  11. narrow:
In the bright sunlight she had to narrow her eyes.
The river narrows at this point.
They narrowed the search for the missing boy down to five streets near the school.
She looked far into the shadowy distance, her eyes narrowed, a hand on the eyebrows to prevent the glare.
The aircraft carrier was too big to pass through the narrows (narrow passage between two large stretches of water).
  12. stall: BrE. a table or small open-fronted shop in a public place, sth. not permanent, often can be put together and taken away, on which wares are set up for sale.
  13. din: specific word of noise, loud, confused, continuous noise, low roar which can not be distinguished exactly until you get close, often suggests unpleasant. disordered mixture of confusing and disturbing sounds, stress prolonged, deafening, ear-splitting metallic sounds
The children were making so much din that I could not make myself heard.
They kicked up such a din at the party.
The din stopped when the curtain was raised.
the din of the cheerful crowd
  14. wares (always-pl.) articles offered for sale, usu. not in a shop. The word gives the impression of traditional commodity, items, goods, more likely to be sold in free-markets.
to advertise / hawk / peddle one's wares
Goods: articles for sale, possessions that can be moved or carried by train, road; not house, land,
There is a variety of goods in the shops.
goods train / freight train, canned goods, half-finished goods, clearance goods, textile goods, high-quality goods
ware: (lit.) articles for sale, usu. not in a shop
The silversmith showed us his wares.
The baker travelled round the town selling his wares.
kitchenware, tableware, hardware, software
earthenware, tinware, ironware, silverware
commodity: an article of trade or commerce, esp. a farm or mineral product
Wheat is a valuable commodity.
Wine is one of the many commodities that France sells abroad.
a commodity fair
merchandise: (U.) things for sale, a general term for all the specific goods or wares.
The store has the best merchandise in town.
We call these goods merchandise.
  15. would-be: likely, possible, which one wishes to be but is not
a would-be musician / football player
  16. purchase (fml. or tech.) to buy
You buy some eggs, but purchase a house.
  17. bargain: to talk about the condition of a sale, agreement, or contract
  18. dizzy: feeling as if everything were turning round , mentally confused
If you suffer from anaemia, you often feel dizzy.
Every night, when my head touches the pillows, I felt a wave of dizziness.
The two-day journey on the bus makes me dizzy.
  19. penetrate: to enter, pass, cut, or force a way into or through. The word suggests force, a compelling power to make entrance and also resistance in the medium.
The bullet can penetrate a wall.
The scud missile can penetrate a concrete works of 1 metre thick.
Rainwater has penetrated through the roof of my house.
  20. fade: to lose strength, colour, freshness, etc.
fade away: go slowly out of hearing, gradually disappearing
The farther you push / force your way into the bazaar, the lower and softer the noise becomes until finally it disappears. Then you arrive at the cloth market where the sound is hardly audible.
Colour cloth often fades when it is washed.
The light faded as the sun went down.
The sound of the footsteps faded away.
The noise of the airplane faded away.
  21. mute:
adj.
a. silent, without speech
The boy has been mute since birth.
b. not pronounced:
The word "debt" contains a mute letter.
noun:
a. a person who cannot speak
The boy was born a deaf mute.( has healthy speech organs but never has heard speech sounds, can be trained to speak)
{cf: He is deaf and dumb (unable to speak).}
b. an object that makes a musical instrument give softer sound when placed against the strings or in the stream of air
verb: to reduce the sound of, to make a sound softer than usual
to mute a musical instrument
Here in the text the word "muted" is used to suggest the compelling circumstances, forcing you to lower your sound.
  22. beaten: (of a path, track, etc.) that is given shape by the feet of those who pass along it, suggesting ancientness, timelessness. The path becomes flat due to the treading of countless people through thousands of years.
We followed a well-beaten path through the forest.
  23. deaden: to cause to lose strength, force, feeling, and brightness
to deaden the pain
Two of these pills will deaden the ache.
    24. measured: steady, careful, slow, suggesting lack of speed, paying attention to what to say
  25. overwhelm: overcome, control completely and usu. suddenly
The enemy were overwhelmed by superior forces.
Sorrow overwhelmed the family.
She was overwhelmed with grief
They won an overwhelming victory / majority.
  26. sepulchral: related to grave, gloomy, dismal
sepulchre / er : old and bibl. use, a burial place; a tomb, esp. one cut in rock or built of stone
  27. follow suit: to do the same as one else has, to play / to deal the cards of the same suits (in poker, there two red suits, and two black suits. They are hearts, diamonds, spades, clubs, jokers, aces, kings, queens and jacks (knaves).
When the others went swimming, I followed suit.
He went to bed and I followed suit after a few minutes.
  28. peculiarity: a distinguishing characteristic, special feature, suggesting difference from normal or usual, strangeness. One of his peculiarities is that his two eyes are not the same colour.
The large fantail is a peculiarity of the peacock.
The peculiarity of her behaviour puzzled everyone.
  29. deal in: sell and buy, trade in
This merchant deals in silk goods.
Most foreign trading companies in West Africa deal in rubber, cocoa and vegetable oils.
  30. scatter: to cause (a group) to separate widely, to spread widely in all directions as if by throwing
The frightened people scattered about in all directions.
One of the special features / characteristics of the M.E. bazaar is that shopkeepers in the same trade always gather together in the same place to do their business.
  31. knit: to make things to wear by uniting threads into a kind of close network. Here, to unite or join closely
  32. guild / gild: an association for businessmen or skilled workers who joined together in former times to help one another and to make rules for training new members
  33. persecution: cruel treatment
persecute: to treat cruelly, cause to suffer, esp. for religious or political beliefs
The first immigrants came to American mainly because they wanted to avoid religious persecution / after being persecuted for their religious beliefs.
be persecuted by sb. for sth.
bloody / terrible /relentless persecution
suffer from / be subjected to political / religious persecution
  34. line: form rows along
  35. trestle: wooden beam fixed at each end to a pair of spreading legs, used, usu. in pairs, as a removable support of a table or other flat surface.
  36. order of the day: the characteristic or dominant feather or activity, the prevailing state of things
If sth. is the order of the day, it is very common among a particular group of people
Confusion became the order of the day in the Iraqi headquarters due to the electronic interference from the Allied forces. Learning from Lei Feng and Jiao Yulu has become the order of the day recently.
Jeans and mini-skirts are no longer the order of the day now.
During that period, the Gulf War became the order of the day.
  37. veil: covering of fine net or other material to protect or hide a woman's face
  38. leisure: time free from work, having plenty of free time, not in a hurry to do sth.
  39. pace: rate or speed in walking, marching, running or developing
  40. preliminary: coming before sth. introducing or preparing for sth. more important, preparatory
There were several preliminary meetings before the general assembly.
A physical examination is a preliminary to joining the army.
  41. beat down: to reduce by argument or other influence, to persuade sb. to reduce a price
The man asked $5 for the dress, but I beat him down to $4.50.
  42. a point of honour: sth. considered important for one's self-respect
It's a point of honour with me to keep my promise = I made it a point of honour to keep my promise.
In our country, it is a point of honour with a boy to pay the bill when he is dining with a girl / when he dines a girl; but on the other hand, a western girl would regard it a point of honour (with her) to pay the bill herself.
  43. make a point of / make it a point to: do sth because one considers it important or necessary, to take particular care of, make extraordinary efforts in, regard or treat as necessary
I always make a point of checking that all the windows are shut before I go out.
I always made a point of being on time.
I always make a point of remembering my wife's birthday.
He made a point of thanking his hostess before he left the party.
The rush-hour commute to my job is often nerve-racking, so I make it a point to be a careful and considerate motorist.
Some American people make it a point of conscience to have no social distinctions between whites and blacks.
  44. what it is: used to stress
What is it she really likes?
What is it you do?
What is it you really want?
  45. protest: to express one's disagreement, feeling of unfairness
Here: insist firmly, a firming strongly
  46. deprive of: take away from, prevent from using
to deprive sb. of political rights / of his power / civil rights
The misfortunes almost deprived him of his reason.
The accident deprived him of his sight / hearing.
  47. sacrifice: to give up or lose, esp. for some good purpose or belief
The ancient Greeks sacrificed lambs or calves before engaging in a battle.
(infml) to sell sth. at less than its cost or value
I need the money and I have to sacrifice (on the price of) my car.
  48. regard: regard, respect, esteem, admire and their corresponding nouns are comparable when they mean a feeling for sb. or sth.
Regard is the most colourless as well as the most formal. It usu. requires a modifier to reinforce its meaning
I hold her in high / low / the greatest regard.
to have a high / low regard for sb's opinion.
Steve was not highly regarded in his hometown.
It is proper to use respect from junior to senior or inferior to superior. It also implies a considered and carefulevaluation or estimation. Sometimes it suggests recognition of sth. as sacred.
He respected their views even though he could not agree with them.
to have respect for one's privacy, rights...
Esteem implies greater warmth of feeling accompanying a high valuation.
Einstein's theory of relativity won for his universal esteem.
Admiration and Admire, like esteem, imply a recognition of superiority, but they usually connote more enthusiastic appreciation, and sometimes suggest genuine affection. Sometimes the words stress the personal attractiveness of the object of admiration, and weaken the implication of esteem.
I have long felt the deepest esteem for you, and your present courageous attitude has added admiration to esteem.
regard:
to regard sb's wishes / advice / what... (but not sb.)
respect:
to respect sb.
to respect sb.'s courage / opinion /
esteem:
to esteem sb.
to esteem sb. for his honesty / courage
admire:
to admire sb.
to admire the flowers / sb.' poem
  49. the customer coming and going at intervals.
A customer buys things from a shop; a client get services from a lawyer, a bank or a hairdresser; One who get medical services is a patient and a guest is served in a hotel.
at intervals: happening regularly after equal periods of time
Trains leave at short intervals.
The trees were planted beside the road at 50-meters intervals.
  50. picturesque: charming or interesting enough to be made into a picture, striking, vivid
  51. -smith: a worker in metal, a maker
copper- / gold- / tin- / black- / gun-smith
  52. clash: a noisy, usu. metallic sound of collision
swords clash
The dustbins clashed as the men emptied them.
bang: to hit violently, to make a loud noise
The door banged open / shut.
He banged the window shut.
  53. impinge on (upon): to strike or dash esp. with a sharp collision
I heard the rain impinge upon the earth.
The strong light impinge on his eyes.
The noise of the aeroplane overhead impinged on our ears.
to have effect on
The need to see that justice is done impinges on every decision made in the courts.
  54. distinct: clearly seen, heard, understood, etc. plane, noticeable, and distinguishable to the eye or ear or mind
Anything clearly noticed is distinct
There is a distinct smell of beer in this room.
A thing or quality that is clearly different from others of its kind is distinctive or distinct from
Beer has a very distinctive smell. It is quite distinct from the smell of wine.
  55. round:
Please round your lips to say "oo".
Stones rounded by the action of water are called cobbles.
The ship rounded the cape / the tip of the peninsula.
  56. burnish: to polish, esp. metal, usu. with sth. hard and smooth, polish by friction, make smooth and shiny
  57. brazier: open metal framework like a basket, usu. on leg, for holding a charcoal or coal fire (see picture in ALD)
  58. youth: often derog. a young person, esp. a young male
a group of youths
the friends of my youth
collective noun: the youth (young men and women) of the nation
  59. incredible: This word comes from credit, which means belief, trust, and faith
credit card
We place full credit in the government's ability.
We gave credit to his story.
credible: deserving or worthy of belief, trustworthy
Is the witness's story credible?
After this latest affair he hardly seems credible as a politician.
incredible: too strange to be believed, unbelievable
  60. hammer away at:
away: continuously, constantly
So little Hans worked away in his garden.
He was laughing (grumbling) away all afternoon.
  61. vessel:
a. usu. round container, such as a glass, pot, bottle, bucket or barrel, used for holding liquids
b. (fml) a ship or large boat
c. a tube that carries blood or other liquid through the body, or plant juice through a plant: blood vessel
  62. bellows: an instrument for blowing air into a fire to make it burn quickly
  63. the red of the live...
The light of the burning coal becomes alternately bright and dim (by turns, one follows the other) as the coal burns and dies down, burns again, along with the repeated movements of the bellows.
  64. glow: send out brightness or warmth, heat or light without flame or smoke
When you draws a deep mouthful, the cigarette tip glows.
  65. rhythmically: happening at regular periods of time, alternately; by turns
  66. stroke: single movement, which is repeated (esp. in a sport or game)
She can't swim but has made a few strokes with her arms.
  67. engrave: to cut (words, pictures, etc.) on wood, stone, or metal
The terrible memory was engraved on his mind.
cf.: carve: to cut (usu. wood or stone) in order to make a special shape
  68. delicate: finely made, needing careful handling, easily broken or hurt, delightful. The word stresses fineness, subtlety and fragility rather than smallness. It implies an appeal not only to the eye but also to any of the senses or spirit.
as delicate as silk / the delicate skin of a young girl
Do you see the delicate workmanship on the bronze doors?
delicate feelings
n. delicacy
  69. intricate: containing many detailed parts and thus difficult to understand.
Here: a specific word meaning the designs are of interwinding or interlacing parts. Just because of these, it is hard to follow.
  70. functional: completely and exactly of practical use. Not ornamental not with many decoration
  71. profuse: plenty, great or too great amount, abundance
to make promises in profusion
Seldom have seen food and drink served in such profusion.
  72. rich: (of colour) deep, strong, beautiful
  73. texture: the arrangement of the threads in a textile fabric / in any material made by weaving, the way n which the threads of a cloth have been woven
a carpet of loose / firm / uneven texture
  74. bold: clearly formed, strongly formed
words printed in bold type / printed in bold letters
May I make so bold as to ask your name, sir?
He was bold enough to say that he was a strictly honest man.
  75. pungent: (often neg.) having a strong, sharp, stinging, burning taste or smell that may or may not seem unpleasant Onions, garlic and Chinese prickly ash give out pungent smell. (An onion a day keeps everybody away.)
  76. exotic: (always positive, sth pleasing) not native to the place where found, alien, strikingly or excitingly different or unusual, out of ordinary, introduced from another country Kebab gives exotic smell.
  77. sumptuous: costly, rich, suggesting lavish expenditure, showing great value, generosity, grand.
A sumptuous meal was served to the visiting guests.
The king wore sumptuous robes.
A sumptuous meal / flat / etc. is one on which a great deal of money has been spent.
  78. humble: (of people) low in rank or position
(of things) poor, mean
Your humble servant (very fml letter ending)
humble pie: submission, obedience, apology made under pressure
A boy with a stepfather has to eat humble pie.
Tom told a lie about George, and when he was found out, he had to eat humble pie.
  79. pottery: earthenware
  80. maze: a confusing intricate network of passages,
as set of twisted passages which is very difficult to pass through
  81. honeycomb: a container made of beeswax and consisting of 6-sided cells in which honey is stored
to fill with holes, tunnels, hollow passages like honeycomb
The streets that pierce the bazaar from all directio sections ns and lead towards all directions cut the bazaar into small like a honeycomb.
  82. glimpse: a quick, incomplete look or view of sth. out of the corner of one's eye
glance: It may denote sth. which is seen as a sudden flash, or the presence or movement of sth. which is recognized by a swift sudden flash.
throw / steal / take a glance at...
glimpse: It also may apply to sth. seen as a flash. But more commonly it implies a brief view of a thing, or even more often, so much of it as may be taken in at a glance
get a glimpse of glance: vi.
glance at ...
glance about / around / round / back
glance up / down the list of names
glance over one' shoulder
glimpse: vt.
glimpse the field / her among the crowd
  83. mosque: Moslem temple or place of worship (where there are wells, fountain, space for assemble, a niche showing the direction of Mecca, the birthplace of Mohammed
  84. caravanserai: an inn surrounding a court in eastern countries where caravans rest at night
caravan: a company of travellers on a journey through desert of hostile regions
  85. disdainful: scornful, contemptuous, showing lack of respect, regard sb. or sth. as low and worthless Here, arrogant, in a superior manner, suggesting that the camels are all stately, strong, heads holding high
cf:
Contempt (n.) suggests very strong sense of condemnation of the person as a low rank and undesirable
Scorn (vt. & n.) implies quick, indignant or profound contempt
Disdain (n. & vt.)suggests a visible manifestation of pride and arrogance
  86. bale: large bundle of goods
cf:
A Bundle is a collection of articles bound or rolled together, fastened, tied, held across the middle
A Bunch is a collection of things usually of the same sort, fastened closely together in orderly fashion, fastened, held, or growing together at one point
a bunch of rice
A Bale is a large bundle of goods bound up for storage or transportation and esp. one composed of materials (as rags, hay, straw, cotton or wool) which are closely pressed together so as to form a mass, usu. rectangular, tightly bound with stout cord or wire
  87. merchandise: (fml) things that you buy, sell or trade with
  88. huge, vast
huge: rather general term indicating extreme largeness, usu. in size, shape, or capacity
A whale or an elephant is a huge animal.
The huge rocket towered high above the buildings around it.
She spent a huge amount of money on that coat.
vast: denotes extreme largeness or broadness, esp. of extent or range
The Sahara is a vast desert.
The vast plans of the country spread for hundreds of miles.
The camel caravan crossed the vast expanse of the Sahara.
A billion dollars is a vast amount of money.
  89. vast, sombre cavern of a room
sombre: dark-coloured, gloomy, dismal, solemn, very serious atmosphere
When sb. dies, there is a sombre mood.
She was dressed in sombre black for the funeral.
His sombre expression bespeaks the bad news.
cavern of a room: apposition
Who is to blame but her tyrant of a father.
He had to work in the hell of a fertilizer factory.
She lives in a palace of a house / a match-box of a house.
Before his stood a little shrimp of a fellow.
  90. revolve: to (cause to) spin round (on a central point), to go around in a circle
a revolving door / stage
revolver: a pistol containing several shots in a barrel that turns round after each one is fire
cf: turn, revolve, rotate, spin, and circle
Turn is a general, rather colourless word implying movement in circle after circle, or in a single full circle or through an arc of a circle
a wheel turning on its axle
He turned to speak to his friend.
Revolve may suggest regular circular motion on an orbit around sth. outside to it.
The earth revolves around the sun.
Rotate is likely to suggest a circular motion on an interior axis (the imaginary axle)
The earth rotates on its axis while it revolves in its orbit.
Spin implies rapid sustained, continuous, constant rotation on an inner axis or fast circling around an exterior point A wheel spinning on its axle
The dance spun on her toes.
To spin strands of cotton or wool, etc, is to twist them into thread.
Circle basically applies to a movement around in a more or less circular pattern, but it can also be used to convey a lack of straight directness in a winding course.
Our plane circled the airport for an hour before landing.
The fence circles the yard.
  91. motive: causing movement. Motive power (a common collocation) provides energy that can be used to operate machinery
Electricity is just one form of motive power.
  92. circular: round, not direct, being shaped like or nearly like a circle
  93. channel: the bed of a stream of water, narrow passage, passage for liquid
  94. constantly: unchanged, fixed, continuous, without break, the stress is laid on lack of change, firmness, and steadiness
cf:
Endless connotes weariness, tediousness and monotony.
  95. attendant: a person who attends another to perform a service, esp. an employee; a person who goes with and serves or looks after; a person who is employed to look after and help visitors to a public place
a museum / parking lot / library attendant; but a shop assistant
cf:
Waiter: a person who serves food at the tables in restaurant
  96. crush: to press with great power so as to break, destroy, the natural shape into power, to break by pounding or grinding Several people were crushed to death as they tried to escape from the burning theatre.
The machine crushes wheat grain to make flour.
The sugar cane is taken to the factory where the juice is crushed out.
The army quickly crushed the uprising.
  97. pulp: the soft almost liquid mass of plant or animal material, such as the soft inside part of many fruits or vegetable
  98. extract: to pull or take out, often with difficulty
to extract one tooth / a bullet from a wound
The policemen extracted secret information from a criminal.
  99. superb: perfect in form, quality, etc. wonderful, marked to the highest degree by excellence, brilliance or competence.
This word describes sth. that reaches the highest conceivable point.
  100. muscular: having well-developed muscles, strong, implying great physical strength
  101. stately: grand in style, noble, dignified; Here implies that the camels walk in a constant, unhurried way with their heads holding high, seemingly dignified.
  102. ramshackle: of a building or vehicle, badly made or needing repair, shaky, unsteady, likely to go to pieces, as from age or neglect, carelessly or loosely constructed.
a ramshackle house a ramshackle bike, which produces a sound at every part except the bell.
  103. apparatus: a set of machines, instruments, tools, etc. that work together for a particular purpose
  104: beam: a large long heavy piece of wood, (usu. square)- esp. one of the main ones used to support a building.
cf:
pole (usu. round)
the main bar of a weighing scales
  105. pulley: an apparatus consisting of a wheel over which a rope or chain can be moved, sued for lifting heavy things
  106. tower: to be very tall, esp. in relation to the height of the surroundings.
The mountain towers into the sky.
The monument to the People's Heroes towers aloft on Tian’anmen.
The Statue of Liberty towers above the harbour of New York.
He towers above his contemporaries.
  107. dwarf: to cause to appear small by comparison
Snow-white & the 7 dwarfs
The building dwarfs all the other buildings in the town.
Most basketball players dwarfs other men.
The brilliance of his poetry dwarfed the accomplishments of his contemporaries.
  108. shovel: used for moving or lifting loose material such as sand, snow, coal
cf:
spade: used for digging earth, with a blade, often pressed with one foot
  109. nimble: quick-moving, moving or acting quickly and lightly; quick. light and neat in movement, agile, as nimble as a goat / a squirrel
a nimble climber
Madame Defarge knitted with nimble fingers
nimble: suggesting surpassing lightness and swiftness of movement or action, it often implies darting here and there
  110. trickle: a slow, small flow of liquid
  111. ooze: (of thick liquids) pass slowly through small openings
Blood was still oozing from the wound
Tiny drops of oil are pressed out to form a small flow down the runnel.
If you squeeze the tube of toothpaste, it oozes out of the tube.
  112. runnel: a small, narrow channel, an open passage, a brook, or a passage dug beside the road to carry away water
  113. glisten: (esp. of wet of polished surface, tear-filled eyes) shine brightly, sparkle
His eyes glistened with tears.
Her hair glistens with oil.
glistening dew-drops
cf:
flash: It implies a sudden outburst of light or a sudden display of sth. that brilliantly reflects light.
Lightening flashed in the sky.
The light on top of the police car was flashing.
A brilliant idea flashed through his mind.
a flash of hope / genius
glitter: connotes greater brilliancy or showiness than sparkle, sometimes with the implication of sth. sinister All is not gold that glitters.
  114. taut: tightly drawn
  115. girder: large horizontal beam, usu. made of iron or steel, which supports the smaller beams in a floor or room I-shaped girder
  116. blend: the equivalent of mix, but usu. it implies a mixing of harmonious things, a union of intimate as to obscure the individuality of the component parts

Part VI

Ⅰ. Word explanation


1. conceivable
   A. reasonable
   B. imaginable
   C. considerable
   D. credible
2. din
   A. muted noise
   B. loud distinct noise
   C. tinkling sound
   D. continuous, confusing noise
3. penetrate
   A. make a round about way into
   B. force a way into
   C. get into easily
   D. dash into
4. deaden
   A. to die
   B. of, or related to death
   C. to lessen
   D. no longer alive
5. sepulchral
   A. overwhelmed
   B. pleasant
   C. picturesque
   D. grave-like
6. persecution
   A. cruel treatment
   B. bringing a case to the law court
   C. violation of one's right
   D. unfairness
7. preliminary
   A. previous
   B. prospective
   C. would-be
   D. preparatory
8. burnished
   A. polish
   B. smooth and shiny
   C. having been burned
   D. something made of copper
9. delicate
   A. complicated
   B. fine and fragile
   C. beautiful and intricate
   D. tiny and easily broken
10. girder
   A. an I-shaped iron beam
   B. closely organized association
   C. ancient trade union
   D. a tree trunk
11. particular
   A. partly
   B. generally
   C. special
   D. participant
12. extend
   A. stretch out
   B. intent
   C. intend
   D. trend
13. purchase
   A. perch
   B. chase
   C. buy
   D. pay
14. bargain
   A. negotiate
   B. barge
   C. boat
   D. gain
15. peculiarity
   A. particular
   B. characteristic
   C. specific
   D. species
16. customer
   A. custom
   B. tradition
   C. convention
   D. purchaser
17. deprive
   A. depict
   B. take away
   C. rub
   D. rob
18. distinct
   A. distinguish
   B. distance
   C. clear
   D. distract
19. engrave
   A. cut
   B. tomb
   C. gloom
   D. grave
20. humble
   A. hunch
   B. hump
   C. respect
   D. lowly

Ⅱ. Replace each underlined part with one word learnt in the text, the first letter of which is given:

1. Stepping out of the dark room, I felt the strong bright light of the sun hurting my eyes. g
2. Watching the ballet-dancer spinning on her toes, I felt everything turning around me.  d
3. The sharp, biting smell of the food makes you sneeze time and again.  p
4. The pressing of the linseed pulp to get out the oil is done by a vast machine operated by one man.  e
5. The Chinese people will never be forced to yield to foreign economic blockade.  o by
6. The busiest men have the most free time.  l
7. A mother will give up her life for her children.  s
8. She fastened a chain to the dog's collar.  a
9. The earth goes around the sun.  r
Unit Two Hiroshima---the “liveliest” City in Japan

Part I Pre-reading Questions


  1. Can you guess the writer’s occupation and his nationality?

  2. What do you think was the aim of his visit?

Part II Background Information

1)Hiroshima, city on southwestern Honshû Island(本州), Japan, capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, at the head of Hiroshima Bay. The city was founded in 1594 on six islands in the Ôta River delta. Hiroshima grew rapidly as a castle town and commercial city, and after 1868 it was developed into a military center. By the beginning of world war II, it was the 7th largest city inJapan, with a population of 350,000. During World War II, the Second Army and Chugoku Regional Army were headquartered in Hiroshima. The city also had large depots of military supplies, and was a key center for shipping.[7]

The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were nuclear attacks near the end of World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States at the executive order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman on August 6 and August 9, 1945, respectively. After six months of intense fire-bombing of 67 other Japanese cities, followed by an ultimatum which was ignored by the Shōwa regime, the nuclear weapon "Little Boy" was dropped on the city of Hiroshima on Monday,[1] August 6, 1945, [2] followed on August 9 by the detonation of the "Fat Man" nuclear bomb over Nagasaki. These are to date the only attacks with nuclear weapons in the history of warfare.[3]

The bombs killed as many as 140,000 people in Hiroshima and 80,000 in Nagasaki by the end of 1945,[4] with roughly half of those deaths occurring on the days of the bombings. Amongst these, 15–20% died from injuries or the combined effects of flash burns, trauma, and radiation burns, compounded by illness, malnutrition and radiation sickness.[5] Since then, more have died from leukemia (231 observed) and solid cancers (334 observed) attributed to exposure to radiation released by the bombs.[6] In both cities, most of the dead were civilians.[7][8][9]

Six days after the detonation over Nagasaki, on August 15, Japan announced its surrender to the Allied Powers, signing the Instrument of Surrender on September 2, officially ending the Pacific War and therefore World War II. (Germany had signed its unavoidable[2] Instrument of Surrender on May 7, ending the war in Europe.) The bombings led, in part, to post-war Japan adopting Three Non-Nuclear Principles, forbidding that nation from nuclear armament.[10]

2)The Bombing of Hiroshima

At 8:15 a.m. on August 6, 1945, by order of President Truman, the first Atomic bomb, nicknamed Little Boy was exploded over a point near the centre of Hiroshima, destroying almost everything with a radius of 830-1,450 meters. The damage beyond this area was considerable, and over 71,000 people were killed instantly. Many more later died of injuries and the effects of radiation. Casualties numbered nearly 130,000. Survivors are still dying of leukaemia, pernicious anaemia and other diseases induced by radiation. Almost 68% of the buildings were completely destroyed and another 7% severely damaged.

The Japanese dedicated post-war Hiroshima to peace. A destroyed area named "Peace City" has been set aside as a memorial. A peace Park was build. A special hospital built here treats people suffering from exposure to radiation and conducts research into its effects.

Every August 6 since 1947, thousands participate in interfaith services in the Peace Memorial Park built on the site where the bomb exploded. In 1949 the Japanese dedicated Hiroshima as an international shrine of peace. After the war, the city was largely rebuilt, and commercial activities were resumed. Machinery, automobiles, food processing, and the brewing of sake are the main industries. The surrounding area, although mountainous, has fertile valleys where silk, rice, and wheat are produced. Population (1990) 1,085,705.



Hiroshima Was Burnt To Ashes

The building was the former Hiroshima Prefecture Industrial Promotion Hall, Where special products of Hiroshima were exhibited and various gatherings were held until the A-bomb was dropped. Since it was located just under thehypocenter, blast pressure was vertically exerted on the bulding and only the dome-shaped framework and part of the outer wall remained. It has come to be called "the A-bomb Dome", and it has come to symbolize to the people of the world "No More Hiroshimas". As years passed, however, the ruin has deteriorated further due to winds and rain. A civic movement was started calling for permanent preservation of the A-bomb Dome, and money was contributed from all over Japan, not to mention from Hiroshima. Within a year after the fund-raising campaign was started, the restoration funds had been collected. In August 1967, the reinforcing construction was completed. That is why the present A-bomb Dome gives a different impression from that in the photograph.



3)The Manhanttan Project: The United States, in collaboration with the United Kingdom and Canada, with their respective secret projects Tube Alloys and Chalk River Laboratories,[11][12] designed and built the first atomic bombs under what was called the Manhattan Project. The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. The Hiroshima bomb, a gun-type bomb called "Little Boy", was made with uranium-235, a rare isotope of uranium. The atomic bomb was first tested at Trinity Site, on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico. The test weapon, "the gadget," and the Nagasaki bomb, "Fat Man," were both implosion-type devices made primarily of plutonium-239, a synthetic element.[13]
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